Aggression- Cause, Effect And Help

3m ago
18 Views
0 Downloads
662.38 KB
6 Pages
Transcription

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016ISSN 2229-5518149Aggression- Cause, Effect and HelpAuthor name: Anupama RaoAbstract: Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The presentstudy assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Many methods suchas Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 7654 participants using survey design.Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala,Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 45% were female and 55% were male. The mean age of the sample was 19.8 years. Comparative analysiswas carried out by Pearson correlation. It was found that about 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-PerryAggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physicalaggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years).The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco,negative peer influence, familyviolence,academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious,loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media.—————————— ——————————Introduction:Society has seen an increase in the incidents of aggression/violence among youth. It includes behaviors such as slapping, hitting,rape, recklessness, driving and shooting in school, truancy, road rage and other high-risk behaviors. Nearly 18.12% of femalesaged 12-17 got into a serious fight at school or work. 14.71% participated in a group-against-group fight and 5.67% attackedanother person with an intent to seriously harm him/her. In India, researchers have focused on factors such as perceivedpopularity among the peer group, romantic relations, the risk factors such as family system, environment, aggressive parentsand academic performance, peer aggression, victimization and social relationships, Prevalence and Gender difference. Theincreasing crime rates and violent activities of youth in India have made the researchers to focus on aggression among youth.There is a need for the proper assessment of youth for aggression and development of prevention and intervention modules foryouth in Indian context. The present study aims to understand the factors (prevalence, risk factors and protective factorsassociated with aggression in six cities of India (Bangalore, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jammu and Kashmir,Kerala and Sikkim)IJSERIn psychology, the term aggression refers to a range of behaviors that can result in both physical and psychological harm tooneself, other or objects in the environment. This type of social interaction centers on harming another person, either physical ormental. The expression of aggression can occur in a number of ways including verbally, mentally and physically. Psychologistsdistinguish between different forms of aggression, different purposes of aggression and different types of aggression.Forms of AggressionAggression can take a variety of forms, including: PhysicalVerbalMentalEmotionalWhile we often think of aggression as purely in physical forms such as hitting or pushing, psychological aggression can also bevery damaging. Intimidating or verbally berating another person, for example, are examples of verbal, mental and emotionalaggression.Purposes of AggressionAggression can also serve a number of different purposes:IJSER 2016http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016ISSN 2229-5518 150To express anger or hostilityTo assert dominanceTo intimidate or threatenTo achieve a goalTo express possessionA response to fearA reaction to painTo compete with othersTwo Types of AggressionPsychologists also distinguish between two different types of aggression:1. Impulsive Aggression: It is also known as affective aggression, is characterized by strong emotions, usually anger. This formof aggression is not planned and often takes place in the heat of the moment. When another car cuts you off in traffic and youbegin yelling and berating the other driver, you are experiencing impulsive aggression.2. Instrumental Aggression: It is also known as predatory aggression, is marked by behaviors that are intended to achieve alarger goal. Instrumental aggression is often carefully planned and usually exists as a means to an end. Hurting another personin a robbery or car-jacking is an example of this type of aggression. The aggressors goal is to obtain money or a vehicle, andharming another individual is the means to achieve that aim.IJSERFactors Than Can Influence AggressionResearchers have suggested that individual who engage in affective aggression, defined as aggression that is unplanned anduncontrolled, tend to have lower IQs than people who display predatory aggression. Predatory aggression is defined asaggression that is controlled, planned and goal-oriented.A number of different factors can influence the expression of aggression. Biological factors can play a role. Men are more likelythan women to engage in physical aggression. While researchers have found that women are less likely to engage in physicalaggression, they also suggest that women do use non-physical forms such as verbal aggression, relational aggression, and socialrejection.Environmental factors also play a role, including how people were raised. People who grow up witnessing more forms ofaggression are more likely to believe that such violence and hostility are socially acceptable.Are aggression and violence learned behaviors?Many psychologists conducted various experiments on children. The most famous experiments are as follows:1.Bobo doll experiment:In a famous and influential experiment known as the Bobo doll experiment, Albert Bandura and his colleagues demonstratedone way that children learn aggression. According to Bandura's social learning theory, learning occurs through observationsand interactions with other people. Essentially, people learn by watching others and then imitating these actions.2.The Little Albert Experiment:It was a case study showing empirical evidence of classical conditioning in humans. The study also provides an exampleof stimulus generalization. After observing children in the field, Watson hypothesized that the fearful response of children toloud noises is an innate unconditioned response. He wanted to test the notion that by following the principles of the procedurenow known as "classical conditioning", he could use this unconditioned response to condition a child to fear a distinctivestimulus that normally would not be feared by a child (in this case, furry objects).IJSER 2016http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016ISSN 2229-55181513.The Milgram Obedience Experiment:It was a series of social psychology experiments conducted by Yale Universitypsychologist Stanley Milgram. They measuredthe willingness of study participants, men from a diverse range of occupations with varying levels of education,to obey an authority figure who instructed them to perform acts conflicting with their personal conscience; the experimentfound, unexpectedly, that a very high proportion of people were prepared to obey, albeit unwillingly, even if apparentlycausing serious injury and distress.4. The Stanford Prison Experiment:It was a study of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. The experiment was conducted at StanfordUniversity on August 14–20, 1971, by a team of researchers led by psychology professor Philip Zimbardo using collegestudents. It was funded by the U.S. Office of Naval Research and was of interest to both the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps as aninvestigation into the causes of conflict between military guards and prisoners. The experiment is a classic study on thepsychology of imprisonment and is a topic covered in most introductory psychology textbooks.Of all the four experiments Baby doll experiment is considered to be the best because of the following reasons:1. Experiments are the only means by which cause and effect can be established. Thus, it could be demonstrated that themodel did have an effect on the child's subsequent behavior because all variables other than the independent variableare controlled.2. It allows for precise control of variables. Many variables were controlled, such as the gender of the model, the timethe children observed the model, the behavior of the model and so on.IJSER3. Experiments can be replicated. Standardized procedures and instructions were used, allowing for replicability. In factthe study has been replicated with slight changes, such as using video and similar results were found (Bandura, 1963).According to psychologist aggression composed of three factors that influence behavior: the environment, the individual, andthe behavior itself. Essentially, it is believed that an individual's behavior influences and is influenced by both the social worldand personal characteristics.The environmental component is made up of the physical surroundings around the individual that contain potentiallyreinforcing stimuli, including people who are present (or absent).The environment influences the intensity and frequency of thebehavior, just as the behavior itself can have an impact on the environment.The individual component includes all the characteristics that have been rewarded in the past. Personality and cognitive factorsplay an important part in how a person behaves, including all of the individual's expectations, beliefs, and unique personalitycharacteristics.And finally, the behavior itself is something that may or may not be reinforced at any given time or situation.IJSER 2016http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016ISSN 2229-5518152Does the violence that children observe in television programs, movies, and video games lead them to behave aggressively?This is a hot question today, but it was also of great interest 50 years ago when a psychologist led an experiment to determinehow kids learn aggression through observation. Aggression lies at the root of many social ills ranging from interpersonalviolence to war. It is little wonder then that Social psychology is one of the most studied topics within Psychology.Aggression model for risk factors of aggressionThe model has proposed based on the risk factors assessed from the current study [Figure 1]. It indicates that there is influenceof all these factors for youth aggression. In the current study, all these factors has individual positive relationship to aggression,Substance abuse (0.001), Mood disturbance (0.000), family influence (0.000), peer influence (0.000), psychological problems suchADHD, sadness of mood, loneliness, anxious, irrational fear, suspicious etc., (0.000), academic influence (0.001), childhoodexperience (0.01), physical and sexual abuse (0.000), TV and media (0.000).Helping hand :IJSERIt is important to understand the youth and help them to overcome the aggressive behaviour . Here are few tips to help them :The 12 anger management strategies are: Count backwards from 10. Take 3 deep breaths. Exercise or play to let off some steam/energy. Find a quiet place. Vent! Talk to someone! Tell yourself calming statements. (It’s okay. Keep calm. Relax.) Lie down and relax. Tense your body- then relax it. (Repeat) Use an I-Message. (I feel angry when you . I want you to .) Think peaceful thoughts. (relaxing by the pool, holding your pet, hugging a parent) Walk away. Avoid anger triggers.Conclusion:The present work highlighted the presence of aggression among youth. Its association with reported that work pressure,substance use, violent activities, family disturbance, road rage, mood disturbance, psychological problems and peerrelationships. Resilience had a negative relationship with substance use, mood disturbance, physical abuse, sexual abuse, FailureIJSER 2016http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016ISSN 2229-5518153in academics, missed college regularly, anger expressed in school or college, childhood experience, ADHD, Family influence,peer influence, media influence and psychological problems. That Jammu and Indore groups have high-level of aggressioncompared to other regions. It management has been highlighted in the form of discussing with others, solving problemsindividually, exploring the reasons for anger; educating themselves about the positives and negative effects of anger expressionby encouraging healthy expression of anger; strict implementation of Law such rules and regulation in managing the anger inthe society; healthy and positive programs in the media and healthy expression of aggression; sensitization about theavailability of counseling and its management. Gender difference exits for management of aggression. It was corroborated byother studies. The presence of abnormal scores of aggression among children in the age range of 14-19 years in the Indiancontext and students (mean age of 28.7 years. Younger age group had high expression of aggression. Males were more likely tobe aggressors or victims than females. Boys were found to be more physically and verbally aggressive than girls, but girls usedmore indirect aggression at the higher year levels. Higher percentage of women engaged in verbal aggression (95.3% vs. 92.8%),whereas the males engaged in more severe physical aggression (4.6% vs. 2.0%) and produced worse consequences for theirfemale partners' health (especially slight cuts/slight bruises, broken nose, black eye, broken bone and requiring medicaltreatment/hospitalization). Women reportedly attacked their partners while under the influence of emotional states of intenseanger (22.4% vs. 13.9%), whereas males did so in response to aggression received (13.0% vs. 6.6%). Physical aggressiondecreased significantly across the age groups, but health consequences became more severe with age (e.g., broken nose, blackeye, broken bone, went from 1% at 16 years to 4.5% at 20 years of age). Risk factors strongly related to later violence wereIJSERdistributed among the five domains of hyperactivity (parent rating), low academic performance, peer delinquency andavailability of drugs in the neighborhood predicted violence from ages 10, 14 and 16 years. Youths exposed to multiple riskswere notably more likely than others to engage in later violence. A dependent group had high mean scores for state anger, traitanger and expression/experience of anger. They had lower anger control and quality-of-life. Alcohol dependent persons havehigh expression and experience of anger leading to low quality-of-life. A history of abuse, failing a grade and dealing drugs wasalso independently associated with violence while having a regular partner was protective. Delinquent peer influences,antisocial personality traits, depression and parents/guardians who used psychological abuse in intimate relationships wereconsistent risk factors for youth violence and aggression poor academic performance, peer rejection and psychosomaticcomplaints with high-levels of anger. The present model of risk factor for aggression among youth has also been corroboratedby the presence of risk factors available in the review of literature in the form of developmental stages (e.g., maternal substanceabuse, community disorganization, residential mobility, exposure to violence, family socio-economic status); executivedysfunction (e.g., difficulty connecting actions and consequences, adapting to new circumstances, processing information to setand realize goals), chronic under arousal and abnormal biochemical activity; psychological factors, such as cognitivedelays/disorders (e.g., ADHD), certain personality traits (e.g., conduct disorder), poor coping ability and poor schoolfunctioning; parental antisocial practices and attitudes and externalizing behaviors, such as early deviant behaviors, violence,aggression and substance use. It has limitation in the form of survey design, even though the researchers were trained for datacollection, Investigators did not had any control on the quality of the data collections. It has implications in the form ofscreening of risk factors/vulnerabilities for emotional dyscontrol among youth, teachers should pay attention to aggressionrelated behavior (verbal/non-verbal) and help children/youth to handle them in a better way and psycho education for theparents; Need for interaction of academic institute, policy makers and parents: Reducing academies distress, ability to handlepressure or frustration or failure; development of intervention module for management of aggression.References: The NSDUH report: Violent behavior among Adolescent YouthIJSER 2016http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016ISSN 2229-5518154Bandura, A., Ross, D. & Ross, S.A. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models. Journal ofAbnormal and Social Psychology, 63, 575-82.Ferguson, C. J. (2010). Blazing Angels or Resident Evil? Can Violent Video Games Be a Force for Good? Review of GeneralPsychology, 14, 68-81.Author Details:Name: Anupama RaoEducational Qualifications: Master of .Science (Chemistry), Bachelor of Education, PG Diploma in Human ResourcesWork Experience: Teaching Higher Secondary School for the past 15 years. Actively involved in student counselingIJSERIJSER 2016http://www.ijser.org