Encyclopedia Of Ancient And Forbidden Secrets Nye

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Encyclopedia of Ancient and Forbidden SecretsNyeAbraham, The Jew: (Alchemist and magician, circa, 1400).Comparatively few biographical facts are forthcoming concerningthis German Jew, who was at once alchemist, magician andphilosopher; and these few facts are mostly derived from a verycurious manuscript, now domiciled in the Archives of theBibliotheque de l'Arsenal, Paris, an institution rich in occultdocuments. This manuscript is couched throughout in French, butpurports to be literally translated from Hebrew, and the style of thehandwriting indicates that the scribe lived at the beginning of theeighteenth century, or possibly somewhat earlier.work this consisting of some account of Abraham's youth and earlytravels in search of wisdom, along with advice to the young manaspiring to become skilled in occult arts. The second part, on theother hand, is base on the documents which the Egyptian sagehanded the Jew, or at least on the confidences wherewith theformer favoured the latter; and it may be fairly accurately definedas dealing with the first principles of magic in general, the titles ofsome of the more important chapter being as follows: " How Many,and what are the Classe of Veritable Magic ? " - What we Ought toTake int Consideration before the Undertaking of the Operation, "Concerning the Convocation of the Spirits, " and " I what Mannerwe ought to Carry out the Operations.A distinct illiteracy characterises the French script, thepunctuation being inaccurate, indeed frequently conspicuous byits absence, but an actual description of the document must bewaived till later. Abraham was probably a native of Mayence,having come thence after the exile of the Jews from Spain, andappears to have been born in 1362. We find that his father, Simonby name, was something of a seer and magician, and that the boyaccordingly commenced his occult studies under the parentalguidance, while at a later date he studied under one, Moses, whomhe himself describes as " indeed a good man, but entirely ignorantof The True Mystery, and of The Veritable Magic."Passing to the third and last part, this likewise is most derivedstraight from Abra-Melin; and here the author eschewingtheoretical matter as far as possible, gives information about theactual practice of magic. In the first place he tells how " Toprocure divers Visions, - How one may retain the Familiar Spirits,bound or free in whatsoever form, " and how " To excite Tempests,while in one chapter he treats of raising the dead, anoth he devotesto the topic of transforming oneself into " dive shapes and forms, "and in further pages he descants o flying in the air, on demolishingbuildings, on discovering thefts, and on walking under the water.Then he dilates o the Thaumaturgic healing of leprosy, dropsy,paralysis and various more common ailments such as fever and sesickness, while he offers intelligence on - How to be b loved by aWoman, " and this he supplements by direction for commandingthe favour of popes, emperors, and oth influential people.Leaving this preceptor, Abraham decided to glean knowledge bytravelling, and along with a friend called Samuel, a Bohemian, bybirth, he wandered through Austria and Hungary into Greece, andthence penetrated to Constantinople, where he remained fully twoyears. He is found next in Arabia, in those days a veritable centreof mystic learning; and from Arabia he went to Palestine, whencebetimes he proceeded to Egypt. Here he had the good fortune tomake the acquaintance of Abra Melin, the famous Egyptianphilosopher, who, besides entrusting to him certain documents,confided in him by word of mouth a number of invaluable secrets;and armed thus, Abraham left Egypt for Europe, where eventuallyhe settled in Germany, some say at Wurzburg, but betterauthorities posit Frankfurt.Finally, he reverts to the question summoning visions, and hispenultimate chapter is titled, " How to cause Armed Men toAppear, " while the concluding pages treat of evoking " Comedies,Opera and all kinds of Music and Dances." It is by employingKabalistic squares of letters that a these things are to be achieved,or at least, almost all them, and lack of space makes it impossibleto deal with the many different signs of this sort, whose use hecounsels.Soon he was deep in alchemistic researches, but these did notprevent him from espousing a wife, who appears to have been hiscousin Matilde Stein; and by her he had three daughters and alsotwo sons, the elder named Joseph and the younger Lamech.It should be said, in justice to the author that he manifests littleselfishness, and seems to have striven after success in his craftwith a view to using for the benefit of mankind in general. Hiswritings are besides, a firm belief in that higher self existing inman, and a keen desire to develop it.He took great pains to instruct both of them in occul affairs, while,on each of his three daughters, he settled a dowry of a hundredthousand golden florins. This considerable sum, together withother vast wealth, he claim to have gained by travelling as analchemist; and whateve the truth of this statement, he certainlywon great fame being summoned to perform acts of magic beforeman rich and influential people, notably the Emperor Sigismun ofGermanv, the Bishop of Wurzburg, King Henry VI. of England, theDuke of Bavaria, and Pope John XXIIIAbraxas: (or Abracax). The Basilidian (q.v., ) sect Gnostics, of thesecond century, claimed Abraxas as the supreme god, and saidthat Jesus Christ was only a phantom sent to earth by him. Theybelieved that his name contained great mysteries, as it wascomposed of the se Greek letters which form the number 363,which is also number of days in a year. Abraxas, they thought,under his command 365 gods, to whom they attrib 365 virtues, onefor each day. The older Mythology placed him among the numberof Egyptian gods, demonologists have described him a - a demon,with head of a king and with serpents forming his feet.Represented on ancient amulets, with a whip in his. It is from hisname that the mystic word, Abracad (q.v.) is taken.The remainder of Abraham's career is shrouded in mystery whileeven the date of his death is uncertain, but it i commonly supposedto have occurred about 1460. The curious manuscript cited above,and from which the foregoing facts have been culled, is entitledThe Book the, Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin, as delivered byAbraham the Jew unto his son Lamech. The volume was translatedaround 1899 by one of the founders of the modern British GoldenDawn, and long time Imperator of its Paris Lodge, MacGregor(Samuel Liddell) Mathers.Adepts: Adepts are men who after stern self-denial and by meansof consistent self-development, have fitted themselves to assist inthe ruling of the world. The means by which this position isattained is said to be long and arduous, but in the end theSuccessful one has fulfilled the purpose for which he was createdand transcends his fellows. The activities of Adepts aremultifarious, being concerned with the direction and guidance ofThis title, however, is rather misleading, and not strictly accurate,for Abra-Melin ha absolutely no hand in the opening part of the-1-

Nyethe activities of the rest of mankind. Their knowledge, like theirpowers, say Theosophists, far exceeds that of man, and they cancontrol forces both in the spiritual and the physical realm, and aresaid to be able to prolong their lives for centuries.They are also known as the Great White Brotherhood, GreatHermetic Order, Rishis, Rahats, or Mahatmas. Those whoearnestly desire to work for the betterment of the world maybecome apprentices or chelas to Adepts, in which case the latterare known as " masters, " but the apprentice must first havepractised self-denial and self-development in order to becomesufficiently worthy. The master imparts teaching and wisdomotherwise unattainable, and helps the apprentice by communionand inspiration. Madame Blavatsky (q.v.) alleged that she was theapprentice of these masters, and claimed that they dwelt in theTibetan Mountains. The term Adept was also employed bymediaeval magicians and alchemists to denote a master of theirsciences.Adhab-Algal: The Mohammedan purgatory, where the wicked aretormented by the dark angels Munkir and Nekir.Adjuration: A formula of exorcism by which the evil spirit iscommanded, in the name of God, to do or say what the exorcistrequires of him.Adonai: A Hebrew word signifying " the Lord, " and used by theHebrews when speaking or writing of Jehovah, the awful andineffable name of the God of Israel. The Jews entertained thedeepest awe for this incommunicable and mysterious name, andthis feeling led them to avoid pronouncing it and to the substitutionof the word Adonai for " Jehovah " in their sacred text. This customstill prevails among the Jews, who attribute to the pronouncementof the Holy Name the power of working miracles. The Jehovah ofthe Israelites was their invisible protector and king, and no imageof him was made. He was worshipped according to hiscommandments, with an observance of the ritual instituted throughMoses. The term " Jehovah " means. the revealed Absolute Deity, eManifest, Only, Personal, Holy Creator and Redeemer.Adoptive Masonry: Masonic societies which adopt women asmembers. Early in the eighteenth century such societies wereestablished in France, and Speedily spread to other countries. Oneof the first to "adopt" women were the Mopses. The Felicitariesexisted in 1742. The Fendeurs or Woodcutters were instituted in1763 by Bauchaine, Master of a Parisian Lodge. It was modelledon the Carbonari, and its popularity led to the establishment ofother lodges, notably the Fidelity, the Hatchet, etc. In 1774 theGrand Orient in Lodge of France established a system of degreescalled the Rite of Adoption, and elected the Duchess of Bourbon asGrand Mistress of France.The rite has been generally adopted into Freemasonry, and variousdegrees added from time to time, to the number of about twelve inall. Latin and Greek mysteries were added to the rite by theLadies' Hospitallers of Mount Tabor. The greatest ladies in Francejoined the French lodges of adoption. The Rite of Mizraim createdlodges for both sexes in 1818, 1821, 1838 and 1853, and the Riteof Memphis in 1839. America founded the Rite of the Eastern Starin five points. In these systems admission is generally confined tothe female relations of Masons. The Order of the Eastern Star andthat of Adoptive Masonry were attempted in Scotland, but withoutsuccess.Encyclopedia of Ancient and Forbidden SecretsAgathodemon: A good demon, worshipped by the Egyptians underthe shape of a serpent with a human head. The dragons or flyingserpents venerated by the ancients were also calledAgathodemons, or good genies.Agla: A kabalistic word used by the rabbis for the exorcisms of theevil spirit. It is made up of the initial letters of the Hebrew words,Athah gabor leolam, Ado-nai, meaning, " Thou art powerful andeternal, Lord." Not only among the Jews was this word employed,but among the more superstitious Christians it was a favouriteweapon with which to combat the evil one, even so late as thesixteenth century. It is also to be found in many books on magic,notablv in the Enchiridion of Pope Leo III.Agrippa von Nettesheim, Henry Cornelius (1486-1535): CorneliusAgrippa - A German soldier and physician, and an adept inalchemy, astrology and magic. He was born at Cologne on the 14thof September, 1486, and educated at the University of Cologne.While still a youth he served under Maximilian 1. of Germany. Inthe early 16th century he lectured at the University of Dole, but acharge of heresy brought against him by a monk named Catilinetcompelled him to leave Dole, and he resumed his formeroccupation of soldier. In the following year he was sent on adiplomatic mission to England, and on his return followedMaximilian to Italy, where he passed seven years, now serving onenoble patron, now another. Thereafter he held a post at Metz,returned to Cologne, practised medicine at Geneva, and wasappointed physician to Louise of Savoy, mother of Francis 1.; but,on being given some task which he found irksome, he left theservice of his patroness and denounced her bitterly.He then accepted a post offered him by Margaret, Duchess ofSavoy, Regent of the Netherlands. On her death he repaired toCologne and Bonn, and thence to France, where he was arrestedfor some slighting mention of the Queen Mother, Louise of Savoy.He was soon released, however, and died at Grenoble in 1535.Agrippa was a man of great talent and varied attainments. He wasacquainted with eight languages, and was evidently a physician ofno mean ability, as well as a soldier and a theologian. He had,moreover, many noble patrons. Yet, notwithstanding theseadvantages, he never seemed to be free from misfortune;persecution and financial difficulties dogged his footsteps, and inBrussels he suffered imprisonment for debt.He himself was in a measure responsible for his. troubles. He was,in fact, an adept in the gentle art of making enemies, and thepersecution of the monks with whom he frequently came intoconflict was bitter and increasing. His principal works were adefence of magic, entitled De occulta philosophia, which was notpublished until 1531, though it was written some twenty yearsearlier, and a satirical attack on the scientific pretensions of hisday, De incertitudine et Vanitate Scientiarum et Artium atqueExcellentia Verbi Dei Declamatio, also published at Antwerp in1531.Ahnernerbe, S.S. – Reich Ancestral Heritage Office: Unlike otherstates in which Occultists are accorded little respect, NaziGermany has made certain occult operations a part of the state,while repressing others with strict brutality. The S.S. itself has anetwork of Thule Society ritual which replaces Christian religionfor S.S. Officers. Based in Old Prussian Paganism, with Nordic-2-

Encyclopedia of Ancient and Forbidden SecretsNyecolorings, the S.S. has its own rites, festivals, rituals and burialcustoms. The “spiritual center” of the S.S. – dedicated entirely tothe development of these and other public rituals, is the AncestralHeritage Office.continuity between the two extreme links of the chain -- theManichæans of the third, and the Cathari of the eleventh, century.The Albigensians may also have some relation to the Arian Heresy,which flourished in southern France in the fifth century, before itwas repressed by the Frankish King Clovis, the leader of theMerovingian Dynasty. The Arians denied that Jesus was divine.Reichsfuhrer S.S., Himmler, is an avid student of the occult. An SSoccult research department, the Ahnernerbe (Ancestral Heritage)was established in 1935 with SS Colonel Wolfram von Sievers atits head. Occult research took SS researchers as far afield as Tibet.The name Albigenses, given to the Southern French sect by theCouncil of Tours (1163) prevailed towards the end of the twelfthcentury and was for a long time applied to all the heretics of thesouth of France. They were also called Catharists (katharos, pure),though in reality they were only a branch of the Catharisticmovement. The rise and spread of the new doctrine in southernFrance was favoured by various circumstances, among which maybe mentioned: the fascination exercised by the readily-graspeddualistic principle; the remnant of Jewish and Mohammedandoctrinal elements; the wealth, leisure, and imaginative mind ofthe inhabitants of Languedoc; their contempt for the Catholicclergy, caused by the ignorance and the worldly, too frequentlyscandalous, lives of the latter; the protection of an overwhelmingmajority of the nobility, and the intimate local blending of nationalaspirations and religious sentiment.As soon as the Nazi movement had sufficient funds, it began toorganize a number of expeditions to Tibet and these succeeded oneanother practically without interruption through the present day. Itis conjectured that the Nazis wish to find Shambala, an ancientcenter of power which is said to be accessible through hiddentunnels in Tibet.The strongest influence on Hitler in this regard was DietrichEckart (1868-1923). Most biographers have underestimated theinfluence that Eckart exerted on Hitler. He was the wealthypublisher and editor-in-chief of an anti-semitic journal which hecalled In Plain German. Eckart was also a committed occultist anda master of magic. As an initiate, Eckart belonged to the innercircle of the Thule Society as well as other esoteric orders.What the Albigensians are supposed to have believedThere can be no doubt that Eckart - who had been alerted to Hitlerby other Thulists - trained Hitler in techniques of self confidence,self projection, persuasive oratory, body language and discursivesophistry. With these tools, in a short period of time he was able tomove the obscure workers party from the club and beer hallatmosphere to a mass movement. The emotion charged lay speakerbecame an expert orator, capable of mesmerizing a vast audience.Relatively little is known about the Albigensian beliefs, since thesect was repressed, and most evidence destroyed. What is knownlargely comes from their opponents. However some picture can bedrawn.The Albigenses asserted the co-existence of two mutually opposedprinciples, one good, the other evil. The former is the creator of thespiritual, the latter of the material world. The bad principle is thesource of all evil; natural phenomena, either ordinary like thegrowth of plants, or extraordinary as earthquakes, likewise oraldisorders (war), must be attributed to him. He created the humanbody and is the author of sin, which springs from matter and notfrom the spirit. The Old Testament must be either partly orentirely ascribed to him; whereas the New Testament is therevelation of the beneficent God. The latter is the creator ofhuman souls, which the bad principle imprisoned in materialbodies after he had deceived them into leaving the kingdom oflight. This earth is a place of punishment, the only hell that existsfor the human soul.One should not underestimate occultism's influence on Hitler. Hissubsequent rejection of Free Masons and esoteric movements, ofTheosophy, of Anthrosophy, does not necessarily mean otherwise.Occult circles have long been known as covers for espionage andinfluence peddling.Akashic Record: the idea that all of the experiences and memoriesof every living being are contained in the substance of the ether.Advanced magicians develop the ability to recover details of pastevents by "reading the Akashic Records."Akiba: A Jewish rabbi of the first century, who, from being asimple shepherd, became a learned scholar, spurred by the hope ofwinning the hand of a young lady he greatly admired. The Jews saythat he was taught by the elemental spirits, that he was a conjurer,and that, in his best days, he had as many as 24, 000 disciples. Heis said to be the author of a famous work, entitled, Yelzirah (q.v.,On the Creation), which is by some ascribed to Abraham, and evento Adam. It was first printed at Paris in 1552. The historic Akibawas a formative influence on Judaism during the post-Diasporaperiod.Punishment, however, is not everlasting; for all souls, beingDivine in nature, must eventually be liberated. To accomplish thisdeliverance God sent upon earth Jesus Christ, who, although veryperfect, like the Holy Ghost, is still a mere creature. TheRedeemer could not take on a genuine human body, because hewould thereby have come under the control of the evil principle.His body was, therefore, of celestial essence, and with it Hepenetrated the ear of Mary. It was only apparently that He wasborn from her and only apparently that He suffered. Hisredemption was not operative, but solely instructive. To enjoy itsbenefits, one must become a member of the Church of Christ (theAlbigenses). Here below, it is not the Catholic sacraments but thepeculiar ceremony of the Albigenses known as theconsolamentum, or "consolation," that purifies the soul from all sinand ensures its immediate return to heaven. The resurrection ofthe body will not take place, since by its nature all flesh is evil.Albagensianism: A neo-Manichæan (Gnostic) sect that flourishedin southern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Amongrecent historians there is a pronounced tendency to look upon theCathari as the lineal descendants of the Manichæans. Thedoctrine, organization, and liturgy of the former, in many points,reproduce the doctrine, organization, and liturgy of the earlydisciples of Manes. The successive appearance of thePriscillianists, the Paulicians, and the Bogomili, representatives tosome extent of similar principles, fairly establishes the historical-3-

NyeThe dualism of the Albigenses was also the basis of their moralteaching. Man, they taught, is a living contradiction. Hence, theliberation of the soul from its captivity in the body is the true endof our being. To attain this, suicide is commendable; it wascustomary among them in the form of the endura (starvation). Theextinction of bodily life on the largest scale consistent with humanexistence is also a perfect aim. As generation propagates theslavery of the soul to the body, perpetual chastity should bepracticed. Matrimonial intercourse is unlawful; concubinage, beingof a less permanent nature, is preferable to marriage.Abandonment of his wife by the husband, or vice versa, isdesirable. Generation was abhorred by the Albigenses even in theanimal kingdom. Consequently, abstention from all animal food,except fish, was enjoined. Their belief in metempsychosis, or thetransmigration of souls, the result of their logical rejection ofpurgatory, furnishes another explanation for the same abstinence.To this practice they added long and rigorous fasts. The necessityof absolute fidelity to the sect was strongly inculcated. War andcapital punishment were absolutely condemned.History of the Albigensian HeresyThe contact of Christianity with the Oriental mind and Orientalreligions had produced several sects (Gnostics, Manichæans,Paulicians, Bogomilae) whose doctrines were akin to the tenets ofthe Albigenses. But the historical connection between the newheretics and their predecessors cannot be clearly traced. InFrance, where they were probably introduced by a woman fromItaly, the Neo-Manichæan doctrines were secretly diffused forseveral years before they appeared, almost simultaneously, nearToulouse and at the Synod of Orléans (1022). Those who proposedthem were even made to suffer the extreme penalty of death. TheCouncil of Arras (1025), Charroux, Dep. of Vienne (c. 1028), andof Reims (1049) had to deal with the heresy. At that of Beauvais(1114) the case of Neo-Manichæans in the Diocese of Soissonswas brought up, but was referred to the council shortly to be heldin the latter city. Petrobrusianism now familiarized the South withsome of the tenets of the Albigenses. Its condemnation by theCouncil of Toulouse (1119) did not prevent the evil fromspreading. Pope Eugene III (1145-53) sent a legate, CardinalAlberic of Ostia, to Languedoc (1145), and St. Bernard secondedthe legate's efforts. But their preaching produced no lasting effect.The Council of Reims (1148) excommunicated the protectors "ofthe heretics of Gascony and Provence." That of Tours (1163)decreed that the Albigenses should be imprisoned and theirproperty confiscated. A religious disputation was held (1165) atLombez, with the usual unsatisfactory result of such conferences.Two years later, the Albigenses held a general council atToulouse, their chief centre of activity. The Cardinal-Legate Petermade another attempt at peaceful settlement (1178), but he wasreceived with derision. The Third General Council of the Lateran(1179) renewed the previous severe measures and issued asummons to use force against the heretics, who were plunderingand devastating Albi, Toulouse, and the vicinity. At the death(1194) of the Catholic Count of Toulouse, Raymond V, hissuccession fell to Raymond VI (1194-1222) who favoured theheresy.With the accession of Innocent III (1198) the work of conversionand repression was taken up vigorously. In 1205-6 three eventsaugured well for the success of the efforts made in that direction.Raymond VI, in face of the threatening military operations urgedEncyclopedia of Ancient and Forbidden Secretsby Innocent against him, promised under oath to banish thedissidents from his dominions. The monk Fulco of Marseilles,formerly a troubadour, now became Archbishop of Toulouse(1205-31). Two Spaniards, Diego, Bishop of Osma and hiscompanion, Dominic Guzman (St. Dominic), returning from Rome,visited the papal legates at Montpellier. By their advice, theexcessive outward splendour of Catholic preachers, which offendedthe heretics, was replaced by apostolical austerity. Religiousdisputations were renewed. St. Dominic, perceiving the greatadvantages derived by his opponents from the cooperation ofwomen, founded (1206) at Pouille near Carcassonne a religiouscongregation for women, whose object was the education of thepoorer girls of the nobility. Not long after this he laid thefoundation of the Dominican Order. Innocent III, in view of theimmense spread of the heresy, which infected over 1000 cities ortowns, called (1207) upon the King of France, as Suzerain of theCounty of Toulouse, to use force. He renewed his appeal onreceiving news of the assassination of his legate, Peter ofCastelnau, a Cistercian monk (1208), which judging byappearances, he attributed to Raymond VI. Numerous barons ofnorthern France, Germany, and Belgium joined the crusade, andpapal legates were put at the head of the expedition, Arnold, Abbotof Citeaux, and two bishops. Raymond VI, still under the ban ofexcommunication pronounced against him by Peter of Castelnau,now offered to submit, was reconciled with the Church, and tookthe field against his former friends. Roger, Viscount of Béziers,was first attacked, and his principal fortresses, Béziers andCarcassonne, were taken (1209).The monstrous words: "Slay all; God will know His own," allegedto have been uttered at the capture of Béziers, by the papal legate,were never pronounced (Tamizey de Larroque, "Rev. des quest.hist." 1866, I, 168-91). Simon of Monfort, Earl of Leicester, wasgiven control of the conquered territory and became the militaryleader of the crusade. At the Council of Avignon (1209) RaymondVI was again excommunicated for not fulfilling the conditions ofecclesiastical reconciliation. He went in person to Rome, and thePope ordered an investigation. After fruitless attempts in theCouncil of Arles (1211) at an agreement between the papal legatesand the Count of Toulouse, the latter left the council and preparedto resist. He was declared an enemy of the Church and hispossessions were forfeited to whoever would conquer them. Lavaur,Dep. of Tarn, fell in 1211, amid dreadful carnage, into the handsof the crusaders. The latter, exasperated by the reported massacreof 6,000 of their followers, spared neither age nor sex. The crusadenow degenerated into a war of conquest, and Innocent III, in spiteof his efforts, was powerless to bring the undertaking back to itsoriginal purpose. Peter of Aragon, Raymond's brother-in-law,interposed to obtain his forgiveness, but without success. He thentook up arms to defend him. The troops of Peter and of Simon ofMontfort met at Muret (1213). Peter was defeated and killed. Theallies of the fallen king were now so weakened that they offered tosubmit. The Pope sent as his representative the Cardinal-DeaconPeter of Santa Maria in Aquiro, who carried out only part of hisinstructions, receiving indeed Raymond, the inhabitants ofToulouse, and others back into the Church, but furthering at thesame time Simon's plans of conquest.This commander continued the war and was appointed by theCouncil of Montpellier (1215) lord over all the acquired territory.The Pope, informed that it was the only effectual means ofcrushing the heresy, approved the choice. At the death of Simon(1218), his son Amalric inherited his rights and continued the war-4-

Encyclopedia of Ancient and Forbidden SecretsNyewith but little success. The territory was ultimately ceded almostentirely by both Amalric and Raymond VII to the King of France,while the Council of Toulouse (1229) entrusted the Inquisition,which soon passed into the hands of the Dominicans (1233), withthe repression of Albigensianism. The heresy disappeared aboutthe end of the fourteenth century.in Hanan, where he learned logic from a Christian physician.Having far surpassed his fellow-scholars, he left Hanan and driftedat last to Egypt. During his wanderings he came in contact with allthe most learned philosophers of his time, and himself wrote bookson philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, and other sciences,besides acquiring proficiency in seventy languages.Albigensian PracticeHis treatise on music, proving the connection of sound withatmospheric vibrations, and mocking the Pythagorean theory of themusic of the spheres, attained some celebrity. He gained the goodwill and patronage of the Sultan of Syria in a somewhat curiousfashion. While passing through Syria he visited the court of theSultan, who was at that moment surrounded by grave doctors andastrologers, who were discussing abstruse scientific points with thepotentate. Alfarabi entered the presence of the Sultan in hisstained and dusty travelling attire (he had been on a pilgrimage toMecca), and when the prince bade him be seated, he, eitherunaware of, or indifferent to the etiquette of court life, sat downboldly on a corner of the royal sofa. The monarch, unused to suchan informal proceeding, spoke in a little-known tongue to acourtier, and bade him remove the presumptuous philosopher.The members of the sect were divided into two classes: The"perfect" (perfecti) and the mere "believers" (credentes). The"perfect" were those who had submitted to the initiation-rite(consolamentum). They were few in number and were alone bo