Rick Wright/Floyd Keyboard & Synth Gear

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Richard Wright& Pink FloydKeyboard, Synthesizer &Electronics Equipment- version 1.56 -

Richard Wright / Pink Floydkeyboard & synthesizer equipmentversion 1.56 by aZiMuTh :: Last updated: 29-Mar-04Keyboard / Electronics / Synthesizer gear (through the years)Farfisa Combo-Compact Organ (1964-1968) Early pre-Floyd days up until Saucerful of SecretsFarfisa Compact Duo Organ (1968-1973) From Saucerful of Secrets up until Dark Side of The MoonMellotron M400 Mark II (1968-1971) Used in Saucerful, Ummagumma, Atom Heart MotherYamaha C-7 Acoustic Grand Piano (1968-1979) From early albums throughout the seventiesHammond M-102 'Spinet' Organ (1968-1972) From Saucerful until Obscured by CloudsHarmonium (1970-1982) Used in Madcap Laughs, Barrett, Meddle, Obscured By Clouds & The Final CutSteinway & Sons Baby Classical Grand Piano (1971- ) Pompeii, Dark Side and beyond EMS VCS3 ‘Putney’ Synthesizer (1971) Used in MeddleFender Rhodes Stage 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano (1972-1973) Obscured by clouds & Dark SideEMS VCS3 Synthi A Synthesizer (1972-1973) Used in Obscured by Clouds & Dark Side of the MoonHammond RT-3 Two-Manual Console Organ (1972-1973) Dark Side Of The Moon sessionsARP Solina String Ensemble Synthesizer (1972-1977) Used in Obscured , Wish You & AnimalsWurlitzer EP-200 Electric Piano (1973-1975) Used in Dark Side & Wish You Were HereMOOG Minimoog Synthesizer (1973-1977) Used in Dark Side, Wish You Were Here & AnimalsEMS Synthi Hi-Fli Guitar Synthesizer (1973-1977?) Used in Dark Side tour and Wish You Were Hammond B-3 / C-3 Organ (1973-1994) From Wish You Were Here through to the Division Bell tourEMS VCS3 Synthi AKS Synthesizer (1973-1994) Used in Dark Side, Wish You , Animals, p.u.l.s.e.Hohner Clavinet D6 (1975-1978) Used in Wish You Were Here, Animals & Wet DreamKorg VC-10 Vocoder (1976-1977) Used in AnimalsRhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano (1976- ) Used in Animals, The Wall and beyond Oberheim Four-Voice Synthesizer (1978) Only used in Wet DreamSCI Prophet V Synthesizer (1979-1981) Used in The Wall sessions and live showsARP Quadra / Oddysey Mark III Synthesizer (1980-1981) One of them used in The Wall showsYamaha CP-70 Electric Grand Piano (1980-1981) Used in The Wall live showsFairlight CMI Series II Synthesizer/Sampler (1984) Only used in Zee - ConfüsionRoland Vocoder VP-330 Plus (1986-1987) Used in Momentary Lapse Of ReasonRoland Super JX (JX-10) Synthesizer (1986-1989) Used in Momentary Lapse album & toursKurzweil K250 Synthesizer/Sampler (1986-1990) Used in Lapse album/tours & in Knebworth ‘90Kurzweil MIDIBoard MIDI Controller (1987-) Used in Lapse & Division Bell tours & Broken ChinaKurzweil K2000 Digital Synthesizer/Sampler (1993-) Used in Division Bell & Broken ChinaKurzweil K2000VP Digital Synthesizer/Sampler (1994) Used in the Division Bell tourAKAI S1100 Digital Sampler (1996- ) Used in Broken ChinaE-mu Proteus/2 (Orchestral) Sample Playback Module (1996- ) Used in Broken ChinaHammond XB-5 Portable Dual-Manual Digital Organ (1996- ) Used in Broken China

Richard Wright / Pink Floyd keyboard & synthesizer equipmentRichard Wright’s gear (by album):: Arnold Layne / See Emily Play / The Piper at the Gates of Dawn (1967)/ Tonite Let’s All Make Love in London (1967)Farfisa Combo-Compact OrganAcoustic PianoCeleste (Piper at the Gates of Dawn only):: Apples and Oranges / It Would Be So Nice / (1968)/ A Saucerful of Secrets / Point Me At The SkyFarfisa Combo Compact-Duo OrganHammond M-102 'Spinet' OrganAcoustic PianoMellotron M400 Mark IIVibraphone:: Music from the film ‘More’ (1969)Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo OrganHammond M-102 'Spinet' OrganAcoustic PianoVibraphone:: Ummagumma (1969) / Zabriskie Point (1970)Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo OrganHammond M-102 'Spinet' OrganAcoustic Grand PianoMellotron M400 Mark II (Ummagumma only)à The Man and The Journey (1969-70)Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo OrganHammond M-102 'Spinet' OrganAcoustic PianoVibraphoneTromboneCeleste:: Atom Heart Mother (1970)Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo OrganHammond M-102 'Spinet' Organ /with Leslie 145 CabinetSteinway & Sons Baby Grand PianoMellotron M400 Mark II:: Meddle (1971)Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo OrganHammond M-102 'Spinet' Organ /with Leslie 145 CabinetAcoustic Grand Piano & Leslie Cabinet 145EMS VCS3 (‘Putney’) Synthesizerà Live at Pompeii (1972)Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo OrganHammond M-102 'Spinet' /with Leslie 145 CabinetSteinway & Sons Baby Classical Grand Piano:: Obscured by Clouds (1972)Hammond M-102 ‘Spinet’ Organ /with Leslie 145 CabinetFender Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric PianoEMS VCS3 (‘Putney’) SynthesizerEMS VCS3 Synthi A (‘Portabella’) SynthesizerARP Solina String Ensemble (model IV) SynthesizerPage 2 of 36

Richard Wright / Pink Floyd keyboard & synthesizer equipment:: The Dark Side of the Moon (1973) à European & American Tour (1973)Hammond RT-3 Two-Manual Console /with Leslie 122 CabinetWurlitzer EP-200 Electric PianoEMS VCS3 Synthi AKS SynthesizerEMS VCS3 Synthi A (‘Portabella’) Synthesizer (not on tour)Steinway & Sons Baby Classical Grand PianoMOOG Minimoog SynthesizerFender Rhodes Stage 73/88 Mark I Electric Piano (not on tour)Farfisa Combo Compact-Duo Organ (not on tour)EMS Synthi Hi-Fli Guitar Synthesizer (on tour only):: Wish You Were Here (1975) à European & American Tours (1974-75) / Knebworth ’75 (1975)Hammond C-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 CabinetMOOG Minimoog SynthesizerARP Solina String Ensemble (Model V) SynthesizerWurlitzer EP-200 Electric PianoEMS VCS3 Synthi AKS SynthesizerEMS VCS3 Synthi A (‘Portabella’) Synthesizer (not on tour)Hohner Clavinet D6EMS Synthi Hi-Fli Guitar SynthesizerSteinway & Sons Baby Classical Grand PianoMOOG Taurus II Footpedal Synthesizer:: Animals (1977) à Europe ‘77 & ‘In the Flesh’ Tour (1977)Hammond B-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 CabinetRhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric PianoMOOG Minimoog (Model D) SynthesizerARP Solina String Ensemble (Model V) SynthesizerYamaha C-7 Baby Grand PianoHohner Clavinet D6Korg VC-10 Vocoder (not on tour)EMS VCS3 Synthi AKS Synthesizer (not on tour):: Wet Dream (1978)Fender Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric PianoHammond B-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 CabinetOberheim Four-Voice Polyphonic SynthesizerARP Solina String Ensemble SynthesizerYamaha C-7 Acoustic Grand PianoHohner Clavinet D6:: The Wall (1979)Hammond B-3 & C-3 Organs /with Leslie 122 CabinetSCI Prophet V SynthesizerYamaha C-7 Acoustic Baby Grand PianoRhodes Stage 73/88 Mark I Electric PianoFarfisa Accordionà The Wall Live [Is There Anybody Out There?] (1980-81)Hammond C-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 CabinetSCI Prophet V SynthesizerYamaha CP-70 Electric PianoAcoustic Grand PianoARP Quadra SynthesizerFarfisa AccordionPage 3 of 36

Richard Wright / Pink Floyd keyboard & synthesizer equipment:: The Final Cut (1983)Hammond C-3 /with Leslie 122 CabinetSteinway Acoustic Grand PianoHarmonium:: Zee - Confüsion (1984)Fairlight CMI Series II Synthesizer/Sampler:: A Momentary Lapse Of Reason (1987)Roland Super JX (JX-10) Digital / Analogue SynthesizerKurzweil K250 Synthesizer / SamplerHammond B-3 & C-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 CabinetKurzweil MIDIBoard ControllerRoland Vocoder VP-330 Plusà Lapse of Reason Tours [Delicate Sound Of Thunder] (1987-89) / Knebworth ’90 (1990)Roland JX-10 (Super JX) Digital/Analogue SynthesizerHammond B-3 Organ & Leslie 122 CabinetKurzweil MIDIBoard ControllerKurzweil K2000 Digital Synthesizer:: The Division Bell (1994)Kurzweil K2000 Digital SynthesizerHammond C-3 Organ /with Leslie 122 CabinetRhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric PianoSteinway & Sons Grand Pianoà World Tour [p.u.l.s.e.] (1995)Hammond B-3 Organ & Leslie 122 CabinetKurzweil K2000 / K2000VP & K2000RS Digital SynthesizersKurzweil MIDIBoard ControllerEMS VCS3 Synthi AKS Synthesizer:: Broken China (1996)Kurzweil K2000 / Kurzweil MIDIBoard ControllerHammond XB-5 Portable Dual-Manual Digital OrganRhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric PianoAKAI S1100 Digital SamplerE-mu Proteus/2 (Orchestral) Sample Playback ModuleRick Wright’s Home Studio Equipment (1996)Kurzweil K2000 Digital Synthesizer / Kurzweil MIDIBoard ControllerHammond XB-5 Portable Dual-Manual Digital OrganRhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I Electric PianoAKAI S1100 Digital SamplerE-mu Proteus/2 (Orchestral) Sample Playback ModuleAlesis D4 Drum MachineMackie 24 8-extension Multitrack ConsoleApple Mac Performa 475 / Steinberg CubaseOtari Radar 24-track Hard Disk RecorderTascam DA-30 DAT RecorderYamaha SPX990 20-bit Multi-Effects ProcessorLexicon LXP-5 Multi-Effects UnitMXR Digital Delay (M-113) / Pitch Transposer(M-129) Rack Mount Effect UnitsYamaha REV7 Digital Reverb UnitStuder ‘Ampli’ VSP Amplitude Panning UnitDrawmer DL241 Dual Channel Auto CompressorUrei 1176 Mono Solid-State Compressor/LimiterNeumann U87 MicrophonesATC SCM-16 Monitoring SpeakersPage 4 of 36

Equipment Description & AnalysisACOUSTIC PIANOSThe acoustic piano has always been an element of the Floyd's sound and -unlike other groups of the timeWright insisted on carrying acoustic pianos (although not always grand) on tour throughout the ‘70s, asopposed to replacing the piano parts with an electric piano; the way Genesis’ Tony Banks did on stage. Itis difficult to say which make of piano is featured on each album. It has been suggested that there aremany different makes used by Wright through the years, however there seem to be a couple of favouritebrands: Steinway & Sons and Yamaha. Piano parts on Dark Side of the Moon were recorded with aclassical Steinway & Sons Baby Grand Piano, which can be seen in the Abbey Road studios during the‘documentary’ sections of Live At Pompeii. The Pompeii live recordings also featured a Steinway Grand(“A Saucerful Of Secrets”). Wright has also been a fan of Yamaha pianos and has used the Yamaha C-7Acoustic Grand Piano for some of the early albums and then for Animals and The Wall.From 1987 onwards, Wright has been using the Kurzweil K2000 digital sampler series (see SYNTHESIZERSand SAMPLING & SEQUENCING sections below) for their sampled piano sound -as opposed to real pianoswhen playing live. Piano samples were used in Momentary Lapse/Another Lapse of Reason/Delicate SoundOf Thunder (1987-89) & Division Bell (1994) tours. Sampled piano was also used during the Division Bellsessions, although the two songs on the album where piano was dominant subsequently had the partsreplaced by real piano; “Marooned” was originally recorded with a K2000 and Gilmour’s original demo of“High Hopes” was played on a sampler, but was replaced by real piano played by Jon Carin. Wrightperformed the piano parts of “Wish You Were Here” on a K2000 for the band’s induction to the Rock n’Roll Hall of Fame. Rick’s current grand piano in his home studio is a Steinway.ELECTRIC PIANOSWURLITZER Electric Piano (1972-1975) – Wright’s use of the Wurlitzer piano is one of the definingelements in Floyd sound. Rick used the EP-200 series model (vanilla white) in the studio and a blackEP-200A on tour. The funky vibe and tremolo of the ‘Wurly’ introduced an electric vibe that satsomewhere between the jazzy piano and the vibraphone –two of Wright’s loves. The Wurlitzer was firstused in Obscured by Clouds (1972) but the real showcase has been in Dark Side (1973) and Wish You WereHere (1975), more specifically in “Breathe”; during the funky staccato counter-rhythm sections againstGilmour's guitar in "Time" (1973); in "Have a Cigar" (1975); and in the jazzy solo in “Shine On You CrazyDiamond” Part 8 (1975). Wright used a wah-wah pedal to great effect in "Money" (1973) making it one ofhis more characteristic moments. The same treatment was also used in “What Do You Want From Me?”(1994), but Wright was either using his Rhodes (see below) or the sampled sound of his Kurzweil K2000 bythen (as in the 1994 tour).(FENDER) RHODES Stage/Suitcase Electric Piano (1977-1981) - The intro to "Sheep" (1977) isWright’s most obvious example of the ‘Rhodes’. The Rhodes produces a ‘jazzier’ vibrating sound and isused mainly for leads and melodic passages, as opposed to the more rhythm-oriented Wurlitzer. WhileWurlitzer was mainly used in Dark Side (1973) and Wish You Were Here (1975), Fender Rhodes was used in“Mudmen” from Obscured by Clouds (1972), in Animals (1977) and The Wall (1979); in “Hey you”, forexample. Wright used a Rhodes Suitcase 73/88 Mark I for the studio and on the road, along with hisfavourite two Fender Twin Reverb amps. He has also used a Fender Rhodes Stage 73/88 Mark I.Since 1987, a custom Kurzweil K2000 with 64Mb of RAM is used for samples of Rhodes and WurlitzerElectric Pianos, when Floyd performed live, however Rick still has a Rhodes as part of his home studio,which was last used for the recordings of Broken China (1996). A Suitcase model was also used for Rick’sguest appearance in Gilmour’s 2002 concerts in Royal Festival Hall.The Rhodes sound has grown to become a ‘Floyd trademark’ through the years, although it was, in fact,the sound of the ’73-’75 era Wurlitzer that most people would be referring to, which is of course verysimilar to that of the Rhodes. Many would argue that this can also be attributed to the band’s durabilityand the relative timelessness of their work. Floyd were certainly pioneers and on the edge of technologyup until a certain point in the seventies and managed to formulate a ‘trademark sound’; and sounds likethat of the Rhodes, the Hammond or the lush synth strings became staples of that ‘Floyd sound’. So, in away, bands like Pink Floyd, which managed to sustain –if not increase- their popularity from generation togeneration, are largely responsible for the post-‘90s revival and popularity of many ‘vintage’ instrumentsand sounds, including that of the Rhodes and Wurly, both of which have become staples in most trip-hop,funky and electronica acts since the 1990s.Page 5 of 36

Richard Wright / Pink Floyd keyboard & synthesizer equipmentHOHNER CLAVINET D6 (1975 - 1978) – The Clavinet is a bass-type keyboard distinctive for its staccatosound and its quick attack & decay and has been indelibly associated with funk. The riffs from StevieWonder’s “Superstition” and Led Zeppelin’s “Trampled Underfoot” are two known examples of Clavinetuse. The ‘Clavi’ was not very often used by Wright, however he owned a D6 woodgrain model (which canbe seen in the Photo Gallery Appendix) and toured with it in ’75 and ‘77. It is unmistakably featured in“Have a Cigar” (1975) for the rhythm bass line heard during the guitar solo, as well as in Part 8 of "ShineOn You Crazy Diamond" where Wright plays the funky riff on top of Wurlitzer chords, accompanied byVSC3 Synthi sweeping effects. It is also –very discreetly- used in Animals (1977), however this cannot beeasily verified just by listening to the album; a Clavi is buried somewhere in the mix during the complexrhythm section of “Pigs (3 different ones)”. Wright also used it in "Funky Deux", “Waves” and other tracksfrom Wet Dream (1978), his first solo album.YAMAHA CP-70 Electric Grand Piano (1979 - 1981) –The Yamaha CP-70 was prominently used inThe Wall live shows, albeit not by Wright himself, but mostly by the late Pete Woods. In the more‘straightforward’ electric piano parts, i.e. where no Rhodes was used, the CP-70 was used instead,although this only applies to the live shows and not to the studio album. It was the CP-70 that was used inthe extended solo passages like the ones played by Woods during the live renditions of “Young Lust” and“Another Brick in the Wall Part 2”.ORGANS & KEYBOARDSFARFISA organ (1965-1972) – The ‘Farfisa’ is a two-manual organ console. In comparison to the morepopular Hammond organ (see below), the Farfisa produces a more ‘classic’ organ sound. Wright includeda Binson Echorec device for echo as part of his combo and managed to produce many unusual sounds outof it, by experimenting with the Echorec and the organ’s tone and pan settings. The Farfisa was Wright'smain keyboard in the early years, when he was playing with Waters, Mason, Barrett, Klose et al. as Sigma6, The (Screaming , Architectural , etc.) Abdabs, T-Set, the Pink Floyd Sound, etc. and was used almostexclusively up until The Piper At The Gates Of Dawn in 1967. Between 1967-72, the Farfisa organ played acrucial role in Floyd’s sound and was used for many of Rick’s leads, which he often panned around theauditorium using a special joystick (an ‘azimuth co-ordinator’ pot) stacked on top of the Echorec unit.Wright used the Farfisa for virtually every solo up until that point, e.g. “The Embryo”, “Fat Old Sun”,“Cymbaline”. He can be seen playing one in Live at Pompeii (1972) and in the studio it was last used forDark Side (1973). On stage, Floyd kept touring with a Farfisa as part of their equipment while they werestill performing live their pre-Dark Side set (e.g. “Careful with that axe, Eugene”, “Echoes” and “Set theControls for the Heart of the Sun”). This organ’s sound has been strongly associated with certain tracks.In the last ever live performance of “Careful with that axe, Eugene” (in 5 May 1977) the absence of theFarfisa sound was clearly heard. Wright employed his Hammond (see below) and his array of MiniMoogsynthesizers (see SYNTHESIZERS section) to play that rendition and the synth sound was somewhat alien tothe piece. The organ in the intro of “Time” is the last time the Farfisa was featured in a Floyd recording.HAMMOND organ (1967 to date) & LESLIE cabinet speakers - The ‘Hammond’ is a two manualconsole (RT-3,B-3,C-3) or ‘spinet’ (M102) tonewheel organ. The Leslie cabinet is a speaker with rotarycomponents which gives the organ sound a very distinctive swirling effect (tremolo) that sets it apart fromother organs, like the Farfisa (see above). Wright has used several different kinds of Hammonds & Leslies.He started with the M-102 (1968-1972) that was featured in the early Floyd albums up until Obscured byClouds. The RT-3 Model (1972-1973) was used in the Dark Side of the Moon recording sessions and is alsofeatured in Live at Pompeii during "A Saucerful of Secrets". The B-3 (1973-1994) and its twin sister, theC-3, were the most popular of all Hammond models and were used in every Floyd album from Dark Sideonwards –depending on the recording studios (check Equipment List by album for details). As for the Lesliecabinets, his most commonly-used Leslie model, since Dark Side, was Model 122. Prior to that, Wrighthad been using a Leslie cabinet Model 145 for Atom Heart Mother, Meddle and Obscured by Clouds.Wright has used the Hammond in a variety of distinctive ways: for its ‘aggressive swirl’ overtones (e.g.“Mudmen”, “Sheep”); as a basic organ layer on top of which other keyboard sounds (or Gilmour’s guitar)were stacked e.g. in “Mudmen” (1972), “Shine On You Crazy Diamond” (1975) or, for a more recentexample, “Keep Talking” (1994). With the gradual advent of synthesizers and other keyboards from 1972onwards, the Hammond gradually became the dominant organ in Rick’s gear and eventually replaced theFarfisa altogether. Wright still uses Hammonds to this day, and it has been the only ‘vintage’ keyboard herefused to substitute with latter-day samplers, as its rotor sound and timbre simply cannot be accuratelyimitated. A B-3 was used in the 1987-89 and 1994 tours; and a Hammond/Suzuki XB-5 Digital OrganEmulator -a more recent digital incarnation of the portable classic- was used in the recording of BrokenChina (1996) and is now part of Wright’s home studio gear.Page 6 of 36

Richard Wright / Pink Floyd keyboard & synthesizer equipmentMELLOTRON (1968-1971) – The Mellotron is a keyboard, which is –loosely speaking- an early magnetictape-operated ‘sampler’. A black Mellotron M400 Mark II, one of only 6 black models made along with themachine once owned by Princess Margaret (presumably for decorative purposes!) belonged to the Floydbetween 1968-71 and was exclusively used in the studio. Floyd never gigged or toured with it and, afterAtom Heart Mother, it was put into storage, where it ended up fairly badly damaged before beingrescued, repaired, and subsequently sold. The photo seen in the Photo Gallery Appendix features Floyd’svery own model and was taken while the specimen was being repaired at Streetly Electronics.Floyd's use of the ‘Tron’ has been sporadic. It has also been somewhat unusual, in that they did not alwaysuse it in a conventional and easily recognisable way –true to their ‘experimental’ label. Wright has usedthe flute tape set in early recordings, such as the single “Julia Dream” (1968); the studio version of “TheEmbryo” (1969-70); and in sections of “Atom Heart Mother” (1970), most notably the beginning of“Remergence” (the sound reminiscent to the intro from The Beatles’ “Strawberry Fields”). Rick preferredto use the mellotron with ample reverb and effects that added depth and gave a slightly differentdimension to the sounds, so some of the mellotron in Floyd recordings does not immediately becomeapparent, which is why it is quite original among other ‘60s outfits. The strings set has been used in theclosing section (“Celestial Voices”) of the title track from A Saucerful Of Secrets (1968); in the “AtomHeart Mother” (1970) suite; and in “Sysyphus” (1969). Despite the suspicious resemblance of some ofRick’s Farfisa ‘pads’ with mellotron strings, in certain 1970-72 performances, “Careful With That Axe,Eugene” did not feature any mellotron. The Wright-penned single “It Would Be So Nice” (1968) alsofeatures a mellotron, as does “See-saw” (1968). Recordings that have made use of choir tapes includeGilmour's “Narrow Way Part 2” and –most prominently- “Sysyphus” from Ummagumma (1969). Brass tapesand –speculatively- some other 'stranger' tape sets may have also been used in Ummagumma (1969) andperhaps in the studio version of “Syncopated Pandemonium” from the Saucerful Of Secrets title track(1968).Another serious mellotron candidate –but subject of debate- is the ‘trumpet’ solo in “Summer '68” (1970).According to various sources the lead is assumed to be produced by an ‘early synthesizer’ but there aresufficient reasons to discard this possibility. In a mid-90s interview, Wright said that the first synthesizerhe ever used was the VCS3 (see SYNTHESIZERS section below). Although he is not renowned for his goodmemory about such facts, the track was recorded in July 1970 and the very few analogue (andmonophonic) synths that existed then, could not have possibly produced that timbre anyway. Another(wild) guess was that the Floyd may have used the Moog (probably available in the Abbey Road studios,left there from the Beatles’ recording sessions of the album with the same name), but this is again veryunlikely. Cliff Jones’ controversial (and subsequently withdrawn after Gilmour’s own request) book,suggests a fairly plausible, yet unconfirmed, scenario: that the Abbey Road Session Pops Orchestra (whohad already played brass on the album’s title track) also performed in “Summer ’68”. So, for all we know,the solo could have been a mellotron -perhaps EQ’ed slightly- although nobody has yet denied thepossibility that the band may have used real brass instead. More on the Mellotron can be found in theSAMPLING & SEQUENCING section.OTHER ASSORTED INSTRUMENTSThis document is focusing on ‘keyboards, synthesizers & electronics’, hence this section serves as a briefoverview of some of the ‘unusual’ instruments Wright has used during the first years in Floyd, includingsome he has been assumed to have played but never actually did. Most of the following have only sparselybeen used on a handful of occasions during recordings and gigs.CELESTE (1967-1969) – Wright has played Celeste on a few occasions. “The Gnome” from Piper (1967)feature Celeste, and most probably the studio recording of “A Saucerful Of Secrets” (1968); “Quicksilver”from More (1969); and “Sysyphus” from Ummagumma (1969).PENNY WHISTLE & KAZOO (1968) – According to several sources, Rick played the penny whistleheard during “Jugband Blues” from A Saucerful Of Secrets (1968) during the syncopated middle sectionwhich also features the Salvation Army Band of North London on brass. Other members also played someunusual instruments, most notably Nicky Mason who opted for a remarkably cacophonous performance ofkazoo. Whether it was also him, Rick, Syd or Roger playing the peculiar ‘lead’ in “Corporal Clegg” stillremains unknown to the author.Page 7 of 36

Richard Wright / Pink Floyd keyboard & synthesizer equipmentVIBRAPHONE (1968-1970) – The vibraphone has been used in “Set The Controls for the Heart of theSun” and in the title track from A Saucerful of Secrets (1968); in the studio recording of “Careful withthat axe, Eugene” (1968); in the “Crying song” and “Quicksilver” from More (1969) and in “Sysyphus”from Ummagumma (1969). It was also part of their touring equipment during 1969-1970, as can be seen inthe back cover of Ummagumma, and was featured on several tracks of The Man and The Journey live suite(1969-70), like in “Sleep”, for example. Since the early 70s Wright started relying solely on the ‘vibe’sound produced by his Rhodes and Wurlitzer electric pianosGONG (1968-1972) – The gong has been part of Floyd’s set since the early days and was mostly (andinfamously) used by Roger, during the crescendo of “A Saucerful Of Secrets” and “Set The Controls forthe Heart of the Sun” (1968). Rick has (ab)used the band’s gong for the recording of his “Sysyphus” (1969)suite, along with various other cymbals, tympani, snare drum, piano/tape treatments, and even Gilmour’sslide guitar. The gong was also featured in More (1969) on the “Main theme” and “Quicksilver”.FLUTE (1969) – It seems that Floyd themselves (i.e. a Floyd member) never actually played a flute on arecord (or gig for that matter) however flutes are featured in some of their recordings. Despite Rick’s lovefor and brief affair with wind/brass instruments (see more on trombone below), he was not the one whoplayed flute, neither on “Party sequence” from More (1969) nor on Mason’s “Grand Vizier’s Garden Party”from Ummagumma (1969). Flute was apparently played on both occasions by Nick Mason’s then wife,Lindy Mason, who happened to be an accomplished flutist. Other flute-resembling sounds heard in earlyalbums and singles were, in fact, mellotron flute tapes played by Rick, notably “Julia Dream” (1968) and“Embryo” (1970).TROMBONE (1969-1970) – Rick played the trombone in the studio recording of “Biding My Time” (1969)and in its live renditions during “Work/Afternoon” (from The Man and The Journey) in 1969 and 1970.There is a picture of Rick playing the trombone in a 1970 Champs Elysées concert (while sitting in front ofa vibraphone) that can be seen in the Photo Gallery Appendix. Still, it is highly unlikely that Rick couldhave performed/overdubbed the brass solo in “Summer ’68” (1970), more about which you can read in theMellotron section above.HARMONIUM (1970-1972 & 1982) – The Harmonium is a keyboard-based organ, with a small (usuallythree to four octaves) keyboard and knobs (usually three to seven), that also features something like anair ‘pump’, not dissimilar to the philosophy of the accordion. It has been written that Rick played anharmonium during the 1970 sessions for Syd Barrett’s solo albums: The Madcap Laughs and Barrett. It hasalso been suggested that Rick used a Harmonium in Obscured by Clouds (1972), with the most likelycandidate tracks being “Mudmen” and “Absolutely Curtains”. However, this is also subject to debate. Forexample, in the section of “Mudmen” during the pedal steel guitar solo it is possible that Rick has used aVSC3, through which he may have patched his e.g. Farfisa to alter the sound’s decay and produced thatwah-like effect. Michael Kamen also played harmonium in the Wright-less Final Cut (1983).SYNTHESIZERSELECTRONIC MUSIC STUDIOS (EMS) VOLTAGE CONTROLLED STUDIO Model 3 (VCS3)(1971) - The band’s association with their first ever synthesizer was established when Gilmour himselfvisited its inventor, Peter Zinovieff, in the latter’s laboratory in Putney, London. The VCS3 was a portablesynthesizer with 3 voltage controlled oscillators, a noise generator, a ring modulator and other modulesinterconnected by means of a matrix patchboard. The oscillators generated sine waves, square waves andsaw-tooth wave signals, which could be programmed through the ring modulator or a series of the otherfilters in different combinations. The Synthi A (formerly Portabella) had the same specifications as theoriginal VCS3, but fitted in an attached briefcase. So, technically, it is not accurate to credit the Synthi Aas the ‘VCS3’, because the original VCS3 was actually an earlier model produced two years earlier (1969).The VCS3/Synthi range was the British answer to the (American) Moog, also used by Wright two yearslater. According to various sources (including the EMS archives) the VCS3 was used in the Meddle (1971)sessions, so it is almost certainly a VCS3 used in the middle (‘Dr Who’) section of “One Of These Days” (forthe record, the BBC Recording Workshop did actually use the VCS3 for the original theme of the Dr WhoTV series). Another VCS3 ‘candidate’ from Meddle could be the melody towards the crescendo in the finalpart of “Echoes”. The Floyd’s Synthi A offered a wide range of possibilities but it took the band anotheryear to discover what they could really do with it. They clearly liked the wind noises it produced, though!Page 8 of 36

Richard Wright / Pink Floyd keyboard & synthesizer equipmentEMS VSC3 Synthesizer Model A Keyboard Sequencer (VCS3 Synthi A KS) (1972 - present) -A later "suitcase" version of the VCS3 with attached sequencer and keyboard, also referred to as‘Synthi A KS’. The Synthi A KS had the same specifications as the Synthi A (see paragraph above), but italso included a blue capacitive touch-sensitive miniature keyboard and an integrated sequencer. Firstused in the title track of Obscured by clouds (1972) and in “Free Four” (1972) for the single-note dronethat accents the verses. The same single-note drone is also fea