Global Pattern of Extended Education and Its Impacton Educational Outcomes: The Case of ScienceEducationSang Hoon Bae, Hyowon Park1, Eun Ju Kwak, Eunwon Cho,Hyeonseok JungAbstract: Science education as a part of STEM education is becoming important not only for the future success of the individual but also for the economic development of the nation. This study explores the global pattern of extended education and its impact on learning outcomes in the area of science. First, the study found substantial national differences in access to afterschool science programs.Children and youth in developing countries generally lack opportunities to learn science after school,which was found to predict PISA 2015 science achievement in this study. The study suggests that inequality in extended education among countries requires urgent attention, as does inequality withincountries. Second, the study found a negative relationship between additional study time for scienceand PISA science performance at the national level. Regarding this finding, it is speculated that thecontent of learning during additional study time differs from that of higher-order learning experiencesmeasured by the PISA science test. The result may also be explained by the argument that the purposeof additional afterschool study is usually remedial lessons and/or test preparation. This cross-nationalresearch will provide insights to policy makers who intend to find global patterns in extended education, develop policy direction at the global level, and offer advice to national governments.Keywords: extended education, PISA 2015, afterschool science program, additional study timeIntroductionIt is increasingly important that children have opportunities to learn after school. Many researchers have revealed that participation in extended education, also called “afterschool,”“all-day school,” “extracurricular activities,” and “out-of-school time-learning activities,”contributes to improving cognitive and socio-emotional development of children and youth(Afterschool Alliance, 2009; Durlak & Weissberg, 2007; Lauer et al., 2006). Attendingquality afterschool programs was also found to have positive effects on student health andwell-being (Little, Wimer, & Weiss, 2008). It is widely agreed that extended education provides considerable social benefits in that it keeps children safe while their parents stillwork, helps students engaged in significant learning experiences that may not be offered bythe regular classes, and contributes to cultivating future talents who will play important1Corresponding author: [email protected] Vol. 7, Issue 1/2019, pp. 86-106https://doi.org/10.3224/ijree.v7i1.07
S. H. Bae et al.: Global Pattern of Extended Education and Its Impact on Educational Outcomes87roles in certain fields such as arts and STEM. Finally, extended education has contributedto reforming public schools, particularly the less-open, less-flexible, and teacher-driven aspects of the regular curriculum. It functions as a place where innovative and creative teaching strategies are implemented based on learners’ interests (Bae & Jeon, 2013; Noam &Triggs, 2018). In many countries like South Korea, Japan, and the United Kingdom, extended education has been used to build bridges between public schools and the local communities (Dyson & Jones, 2014; Kanefuji, 2017). On the one hand, the educational capacities of schools are extended to solve the problems of local towns. On the other hand, extended education becomes a platform where educational resources of the local communitiesare employed for better education.In this context, extended education is gaining popularity among the public and policymakers in many countries. It is spotlighted as an effective attempt to fix the problems thatpublic schooling has faced, respond to diverse social needs such as childcare and educationfor immigrants, and develop a skillful workforce in certain areas. Accordingly, substantialfinancial and physical resources are provided to improve the quality of extended educationand enhance opportunities to learn after school, especially for underserved and underrepresented children and youth.However, most efforts have been made to promote the quality and equality of extendededucation in the context of a certain country. Public attention has also been given to domestic education issues. During the past decade, extended education research has kept increasing, but the focus of the research was primarily on the issues within the country. Only a fewcomparative qualitative studies have been done to explore differences and similarities between two selected countries (e.g., Bae & Kanefuji, 2018; Klerfelt & Stecher, 2018;Schuepbach & Huang, 2018). The exception is those studies that investigate private supplementary tutoring, also known as shadow education, across countries (e.g., Bray, 2013;Bray, Kwo & Jokic, 2015).Fueling this study is the lack of empirical comparative research on extended educationat the international level – in other words, cross-national comparative research. A primaryfocus of this exploratory research is to examine the global pattern of extended educationprovision and participation at the national level. In addition, the study examines whethernational differences, if any, are related to learning outcomes of the students aggregated atthe national level. The aim of this cross-national research is to provide researchers and policy makers with information about how the national context influences extended education.In addition, this study aims to suggest what the policy implications of achieving quality andequality of extended education at the global level are.In the context of extended education, this research concerns “science education,” whichis the core subject of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) and is considered a powerful predictor of national competitiveness. A great deal of research (NationalResearch Council, 2010) has pointed out that STEM education plays a significant role inthe educational and career success of the individual as well as the competitiveness of thenation. Studies (Brophy et al. 2008; National Science Board, 2008; White, 2014) suggestthat participation in well-designed STEM education helps students develop problemsolving skills, critical and creative thinking, and collaboration skills that are all necessaryfor the knowledge-based economy and jobs of the present and future. Furthermore, higher
S. H. Bae et al.: Global Pattern of Extended Education and Its Impact on Educational Outcomes87STEM scores are associated with a greater tendency by students to enroll in higher education in STEM fields and become professionals in these areas. There is no doubt that moregraduates and professionals in the area of STEM will lead to stronger high-tech industriesand advanced innovative businesses. In line with research findings suggesting the importance of STEM education, many countries have made greater efforts to improve thequality of STEM programs and offer more opportunities for afterschool learning, particularly to disadvantaged students (National Science Board, 2007). Nonetheless, little researchhas been conducted to reveal the global pattern of STEM education in the context of extended education. This cross-national exploratory study was conducted to fill that void.The research questions are as follows:1. Do national differences exist in the provision of school-based afterschool science programs and additional study time on science by students?2. Are the percentage of the nation’s schools offering afterschool science programs andthe average of additional study time on science spent by students associated with theaverage science performance of the students at the national level?3. What determines how many schools offered afterschool science programsand howmuch additional study time for science is spent by students at the national level?Review of the Related LiteratureExtended EducationExtended education refers to the intentionally structured learning and development programs and activities that are not part of the regular classes and generally offered before andafter school and at locations outside the school. However, the term or name used variesacross different countries – in other words, afterschool programs, all-day school, extracurricular activities, out-of-school time learning, extended schools, expanded learning, and leisure-time activities. The features of extended education are closely related to social, political, and educational contexts of the society where it has been developed and implemented.Given the variety of names and features across nations, “extended education” was createdas an umbrella term (for more information, see Bae, 2018).In addition, Bae (2018) suggested a typology based on the purpose of extended education programs: a) extended education programs from child development-based conception,b) extended education programs from the role of the school-based conception, and c) extended education programs from family-reproduction conception. Given the availability ofcross-national data1, the current study involves the analysis of the data about the “schoolbased afterschool programs,” which are based on child-development conception and “additional study after school of the student” that relates to family-reproduction conception.“School-based afterschool programs” have been developed to solve the problems of the1The OECD PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) 2015 survey collected national data aboutthe provision of afterschool programs and additional afterschool study time spent by students across subjects.
88International Journal for Research on Extended Education, Volume 7, 1/2019regular curricular activities, which tend to be standardized and are not flexible enough torespond to the diverse needs of the students (Bae & Jeon, 2013).Worldwide, these programs are implemented to promote student creativity, problemsolving skills, and socio-emotional skills by adopting innovative teaching approaches andexperimental learning strategies (Noam & Triggs, 2018). “Additional study after school,”often called “supplementary private tutoring” and “shadow education,” is becoming globally popular and institutionalized (Bray, 2013; Mori & Baker, 2010). Bray (2013) suggestedthat the institutional features of shadow education include supplementation, privateness,and academic subject-focus.Afterschool ProgramsStudies (Afterschool Alliance, 2008; Durlak & Weissberg, 2007; Lauer et al., 2006; Little,Wimer, & Weiss, 2008) have found that afterschool programs affect student emotional development, which in turn affects academic performance. In addition, afterschool programswere found to promote youth development including self-esteem, positive attitudes (e.g.,self-perception), and social behavior. Students who participate in afterschool programs tendto show a significant improvement in attitudes such as self-perception and bonding withtheir school and decreased problem behaviors. Furthermore, these positive effects of afterschool program participation can be expanded to improve academic performance.The effects of participation in afterschool programs on academic achievement can bemoderated by certain conditions such as the focus of the programs (e.g., academic-focusedvs. enrichment-focused), socio-economic status (SES) of participants (e.g., low-income vs.higher-income families), and participation time. For instance, in the case of afterschoolprograms in Korea, it was found that as the afterschool program becomes more academiccentered, participants tend to register better achievement levels (Bae, Kim, & Yang, 2010).The study (Pierce, Auger, & Vandell, 2013) also found that underprivileged students tendto benefit more from afterschool program participation.While previous studies have paid much attention to the effect of afterschool programparticipation on student outcomes, few studies have examined what determines the provision of afterschool programs by the school. Considering the factors that were found to influence educational investment and achievement at the individual and national levels, thisstudy involves variables at the school, the community, and student levels in examining thedeterminants of provision of afterschool science programs by the school. More specifically,the study assumed that the educational resources of the school, the number of full-timeteachers with certification in this study, is related to the school’s capacity to provide afterschool programs. Next, the study investigated whether the active participation of parents inschool events, the percentage of parents who volunteered in extracurricular school activitiesin this study, is associated with the availability of afterschool programs. Finally, the studyposited that a school in which students are more motivated is more likely to offer afterschool programs.
S. H. Bae et al.: Global Pattern of Extended Education and Its Impact on Educational Outcomes89Additional Study TimeIn this study, “additional study time” is a general term for additional afterschool study including homework as well as private supplementary education, also called “shadow education.” The term “shadow education” conveys the image of outside-school learning activitiescompared to officially provided public education that students buy to increase their educational opportunities (Baker et al., 2001). These activities tend to go beyond doing routinelyassigned homework. Instead, they consist of organized and structured learning, often byprivate vendors, in order to supplement regular school learning and/or take advantage ofexaminations in which they compete with peers – particularly in East Asian countries likeSouth Korea, Japan, and Hong Kong (for more information, see Bae & Jeon, 2013; Bray,2013; Mori & Baker, 2010; Sivan & Siu, 2017).Many researchers have suggested that shadow education has grown and become i