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Basics of Computer ScienceAbout the TutorialComputer Science is one of the disciplines of modern science under which, we study aboutthe various aspects of computer technologies, their development, and their applications inthe present world.Likewise, Computer Science includes a wide range of topics such as the development ofComputer Technology (hardware and software), application of Computer technology intoday’s life, information technology, computer threat, computer security, etc. However,we have segregated this tutorial into different chapters for easy understanding.AudienceThis tutorial is designed exclusively for the students preparing for the different competitiveexams including civil services, banking, railway, eligibility test, and all othercompetitive exams of such kind.PrerequisitesIt is a very basic tutorial that assumes no prior knowledge on any concepts related to ComputerScience. Hence, there are no prerequisites whatsoever. This tutorial is entirely based onreliable sources including books, relevant articles, and facts (taken from the officialwebsites).Copyright & Disclaimer Copyright 2017 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd.All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point (I)Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute or republishany contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without written consentof the publisher.We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as precisely aspossible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I) Pvt.Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness of ourwebsite or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on our website orin this tutorial, please notify us at [email protected]

Basics of Computer ScienceTable of ContentsAbout the Tutorial . iAudience . iPrerequisites . iCopyright & Disclaimer. iTable of Contents . ii1.BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – – FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS . 1Major Functions of Computer System . 1Salient Features of Computer System . 2Evolution of Computer System . 22.BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – ROLE OF COMPUTER IN TODAY’S WORLD . 4Advantages of Computers in Business . 43.BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – COMPUTER SYSTEM . 7Components of Computer System . 7Input & Output Device . 8Software . 84.BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – PROGRAMING LANGUAGES . 105.BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – HARDWARE & SOFTWARE. 126.BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – ANALOG AND DIGITAL. 137.BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – OPERATING SYSTEM. 14Applications of Operating System . 14Types of Operating System . 15Disk Operating System . 15ii

Basics of Computer ScienceWindows Operating System . 16Unix Operating System . 178.BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – INTERNET . 18Features of Internet . 18Internet Software . 20Internet Applications . 209.BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – TYPES OF COMPUTERS . 21Types of Computer . 2110. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – COMPUTER NETWORKING TERMINOLOGY . 2311. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – COMPUTER APPLICATIONS. 26Uses of Computer Applications . 26Online Applications . 26Real-time Application . 27Business Application . 2912. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER . 30Computer Generations . 3013. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – DATA PROCESSING . 34Methods of Data Processing . 3414. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – COMPUTER NETWORKING . 36Advantages of Networking . 36Types of Network . 38Local Area Network . 38Metropolitan Area Network . 38Wide Area Network. 38iii

Basics of Computer Science15. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – COMPUTER RELATED JOBS . 39Types of Computer Related Jobs . 3916. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – ELECTRONIC COMMERCE . 41What is Electronic Commerce? . 41Features of E-Commerce . 42Types of E-Commerce . 42Benefits of E-Commerce . 4217. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – SOFTWARE PROGRAMMING . 44Features of Software Programming . 44Steps to Development of Program . 4518. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – ALGORITHM – FLOWCHART . 47Benefits of Flowchart . 47Flow-Chart Symbols . 4819. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – EXTRANET . 50Features of Extranet Services . 50Application of Extranet . 51Advantages of Extranet . 51Major Fields Using Extranet . 5120. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – MOBILE COMPUTER . 52Types of Mobile Computing Device . 5221. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – WINDOWS DESKTOP ELEMENTS . 54Start Menu Options. 54Recycle Bin . 56Internet Option . 56iv

Basics of Computer Science22. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – COMPUTER MULTIMEDIA . 57Literal Meaning of Multimedia . 57Multimedia Computer System . 58Multimedia Components. 58Multimedia Application. 5923. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – COMPUTER SECURITY . 61Why Do We Computer Security? . 61Protection of Data & Information. 62What is Defragmentation? . 62Disk Cleanup . 6324. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – COMPUTER THREAT . 64Definition . 64Types of Threat . 64Sources of Threat . 65Common Terms . 65How to Secure Your Computer System from Threats? . 6625. BASICS OF COMPUTER SCIENCE – COMPUTER VIRUS . 67Types of Virus. 67How Does Virus Affect? . 68Impact of Virus .