THE CONCEPT OF PATRIOTISM IN HEMINGWAY'S FAREWELL

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Research Journal of English Language and Literature (RJELAL)A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International JournalImpact Factor 6.8992 (ICI) http://www.rjelal.com;Vol.6.Issue 2. 2018(April-June)Email:[email protected] ISSN:2395-2636 (P); 2321-3108(O)RESEARCH ARTICLETHE CONCEPT OF PATRIOTISM IN HEMINGWAY'S FAREWELL TO ARMSM.A: AHMED RASHEED MAJEED AL RUBAIY1, Prof. Dr. MAHMOUD ALI AHMED21Assist. Instructor, Department of English Language, Al Yarmouk University College-Iraq . (PhD)Scholar, College of Languages, Sudan University of Science and Technology.2Research Supervisor, Department of English Language, College of Languages, Sudan University ofScience and Technology.ABSTRACTLove for one's ancestry, culture or homeland is the root meaning of patriotism.Patriotism, can be thought as an ideal concept. It can be existed as an idea and afeeling in the mind and hearts of people. Throughout time people have imaginedthe love and sacrifice for their country as a sublime goal and a far- sought goldenwish. That is why the idealism of patriotism hovers over the meaning and concept ofthe term in life and literature.In sum, Patriotism is a concept that is literally rates over the clashing terms in life .itis a sense related and the most important feeling towards one's country. Theparticular effect of patriotism in literature lays in the way the writer often enclosesthe axis of our attention on this concept.Key words: Love, War, Patriotism.1.Farewell To Arms: An IntroductionA Farewell to Arms is published in 1929.The novel shows Hemingway’s revolutionary style asmore conventional and impressive manner. Theresult is the novel’s widespread popular success aswell as worldwide fame for the author himself ever1since .The Alps around the frontier between Italyand present-day Slovenia forms the first beginningof Hemingway's Farewell to Arms. It is good tomention that, Italy is allied with Britain, France, andRussia against the Austro-Hungarian Empire andGermany. Italy is responsible for preventing theAustro-Hungarian forces from assisting the Germanson the war’s western front, and Russia in the east.Lieutenant Frederic Henry, is identified as the heroand narrator of the novel, and he is an Americanwho has volunteered for the Italian army because2the United States has not yet entered the war.123Fredric Henry works as a supervisor for a smallgroup of Italian ambulance drivers. After awintertime leave spent touring the country,Lieutenant Henry returns to the captured town atthe front where his unit lives. Fredric is introducedby his friend Rinaldi, for two British nurses:Catherine Barkley and her friend Helen Ferguson.Both of Catherine and Henry talk of the war and ofher fiancé, killed in combat the year before; clearlyshe has been shocked by the experience. WhenFredric make another visit to the British hospital, hedevelops a deep emotional love tie with Catherine3Barkly.When Henry once again visits Catherine,she tells him that she loves him and asks whether heloves her. He responds that he is also deeplyinfatuated with her. However, Fredric Henry and hiscomrades, the ambulance-drivers hide into a dugoutacross the river so as to be not seen by the enemytroops. Then, as the drivers are eating, the AustrianAHMED RASHEED MAJEED AL RUBAIY & Prof. Dr. MAHMOUD ALI AHMED

Research Journal of English Language and Literature (RJELAL)A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International JournalImpact Factor 6.8992 (ICI) http://www.rjelal.com;Vol.6.Issue 2. 2018(April-June)Email:[email protected] ISSN:2395-2636 (P); 2321-3108(O)bombardment wounds Fredric in his leg and kills oneof the other drivers. Fredric is evacuated via train toMilan for the American hospital. Catherine Barkleyarrives at the hospital, to which she has beenrecently moved up. Once again, she and FredricHenry declare their love for each other. Then, bothof them develop their emotional tie into loverelationship in the hospital bed. Furthermore, bothof Fredric and Catherine spend the season ofsummer altogether while he heals over from anoperation on his leg. In the evening, they visitrestaurants around Milan and then spend the nightstogether. However, by the end of summer,Lieutenant Fredric Henry is ordered to return backto the front. Catherine reveals for Fredric that she isthree months pregnant due to his love relationshipwith her. Fredric feels deeply linked to his beloved.Fredric spends one last night with Catherine and he4buys a pistol at that night.Eventually, on Fredric's recent return tothe front, the Austrians (now joined by Germantroops) bombard the Italian army and eventuallybreak through the lines near the town of Caporetto.The ambulance drivers and Fredric retreat with therest of the Italian forces in a long, slow-movingcolumn of troops and vehicles. They pick up twoItalian engineer-sergeants. Finally, the ambulancespull off the main road. When one of the vehiclesbecomes stuck in the mud, the two sergeants refuseto assist in the effort to push it and disobeyLieutenant Fredric's order to remain with the group.Fredric shoots them, wounding one; and anotherambulance driver then uses Fredric's pistol to finish5killing the two sergeants.Consequently, Henry and the three driversleave the ambulances and set out on foot for theTagliamento River, across which are saved. Soonthey see some German soldiers in the area.Nonetheless, one of the two drivers is shot to deathby his comrade Italians shooting in error. While, theother driver runs, and surrender to the Germans.Finally, after being saved from the enemy,Lieutenant Fredric Henry observes that the Italianarmy officers who are like himself are being shot bythe Italian military police for leaving out theirtroops. Lieutenant Fredric Henry also fears beingkilled and to be regarded as a German spy. Fredric124dives into the Tagliamento River, deserting theItalian army and swims offshore . Fredric crossespart of the Venetian plain on foot, then boards amoving train, hiding among guns stored beneath atarpaulin. Frederic Henry is no longer a Lieutenant,6arrives in Milan as a deserted solider .Catherine Barkley and Helen Ferguson arenot present in the hospital, as they have gone onholiday to the Italian resort town of Stresa. SoFredric travels via train to Stresa, where he findsCatherine and Helen. Discovering late one night thatHenry will be arrested as a deserter in the morning,Fredric and Catherine quickly prepare to escape intothe neutral Switzerland. Through the stormy night,Catherine and Fredric travel in a small, open boatacross Lake Maggiore. The following day they arearrested and briefly detained by Swiss officials, afterwhich they are released. Frederic Henry andCatherine Barkley move into a chalet on a mountainabove Montreaux and spend an idyllic winter there.At winter’s end, they leave the mountains for a hotelin Lausanne. Finally, Fredric takes Catherine to thehospital, where her baby is stillborn. Then, as aresult of multiple hemorrhages, Catherine dies.Fredric leaves the hospital filled with sorrowfulemotions for his lost beloved, yet he has some hope7in tomorrow.2.Patriotism In Hemingway's Farewell ToArmsThe narrator is Frederic Henry who servesas a Lieutenant and ambulance driver in the Italianarmy in WWI. He is an American citizen, butvolunteered to serve in the Italian forces. He falls inlove with Catherine Barkley who serves as a Britishnurse in the Italian army. Both protagonists suffer agreat deal because of the war consequences andlove. The thing that leads to the eventual death ofCatherine in her first childbirth. Finally, FredericHenry leaves the hospital alone losing both his childand wife. Though Frederic leaves the heartbroken,still he has some hope in tomorrow, something8stems from his profound faith in human destiny.Death and love take the center stage in A Farewellto Arms ,and this is clearly highlighted in theopening pages of the novel. Although the beginningpages are set in a plain filled with crops of deadpeople. That is why it is vividly stated that rain willAHMED RASHEED MAJEED AL RUBAIY & Prof. Dr. MAHMOUD ALI AHMED

Research Journal of English Language and Literature (RJELAL)A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International JournalImpact Factor 6.8992 (ICI) http://www.rjelal.com;Vol.6.Issue 2. 2018(April-June)Email:editorrjel[email protected] ISSN:2395-2636 (P); 2321-3108(O)serve as a symbol of death in this novel. Further, thenarrator reports that during fall time when the rainscame the leaves all fell from the chestnut trees andthe branches were bare and the trunks black with9rain. The narrator also tells us that the rain wasfollowed by disease:Troops went by the house and down theroad and the dust they raised powderedthe leaves of the trees. The trunks of thetrees too were dusty and the leaves fellearly that year and we saw the troopsmarching along the road and the dust risingand leaves, stirred by the breeze, fallingand the soldiers marching and afterwardthe road bare and white except for theleaves. The plain was rich with crops; therewere many orchards of fruit trees andbeyond the plain the mountains werebrown and bare At the start of thewinter came the permanent rain and withthe rain came the cholera. But it waschecked and in the end only seven10thousand died of it in the army.(A Farewell to Arms, p.1)Thus, Hemingway makes an explicit, even causal,connection between rain and death. He thenforeshadows the novel’s tragic conclusion when thesoldiers weighed down by weapons and ammunitionare said to march as though they were overloaded:There were mists over the river and cloudson the mountain and the trucks splashedmud on the road and the troops weremuddy and wet in their capes; their rifleswere wet and under their capes the twoleather cartridge boxes on the front of thebelts, gray leather boxes heavy with thepacks of clips of thin, long 6.5 mm.cartridges, bulged forward under the capesso that the men, passing on the road,marched as though they were six monthsgone with child. (A Farewell to Arms, p.1)Finally, the narrator’s attitude toward theunpleasant and difficult, the painful and even tragic.Regarding the cholera epidemic disease outbreak,he tells us that “in the end only seven thousand diedof it in the army.” Hemingway in using the phrase ''125Only seven thousand!' affirms the pointlessness of11war and its destructive outcomes.Through this scene the readers are closer tothe atmospheres of war and more abreast of itshorrific consequences. People die uselessly and thespread of epidemic diseases are easily seen due towar. Hemingway one again places a moral burdenon his tale to covey for the readers. Eventually, waris discovered to be unreal cause and no more than afalse tale that illusioned modern society via its12sublime logos and unfulfilled goals.Then, the narrator’s fellow officers tauntthe priest, their chaplain—though, significantly, thenarrator himself does not join in the baiting. TheItalian officers recommend that the narrator spendhis forthcoming leave in a variety of low-lying Italiantowns and cities, while the priest suggests he travel13to the mountains.In this part of the novel, the Hemingwayintroduces another dichotomy paralleling that of themountains versus the plains: the church and thebrothel. The two dynamics intersect when the priestinvites the narrator to visit his mountain hometown14while on leave.The officers laugh at this suggestion, stating:He doesn't want to see peasants. Let himgo to centers of culture and civilization." ."He should have fine girls. I will give you theaddresses of places in Naples. Beautifulyoung girls accompanied by their mothers.(A Farewell to Arms, p.3)Hemingway wants to say that for these men,civilization and lust are one and the same, but thepriest is offering the narrator a different, morespiritual, way of spending a leave. Hence some ofthe officers then offer the addresses ofwhorehouses in Naples. However, the chaplain isoffering to visit his hometown as the people there15are friendly and nature is beautiful.Still, nature for Hemingway is not always inpeace with man. It is a fact of pre- and early-modernwarfare that fighting becomes impossible when itsnows. Therefore snow equals peace to FredericHenry and his friends, as it will be seen in the finalchapters of the novel. Thus, peace is never morethan a temporary shadow lays its wings on thefrontlines. Also the snow covers the bare groundAHMED RASHEED MAJEED AL RUBAIY & Prof. Dr. MAHMOUD ALI AHMED

Research Journal of English Language and Literature (RJELAL)A Peer Reviewed (Refereed) International JournalImpact Factor 6.8992 (ICI) http://www.rjelal.com;Vol.6.Issue 2. 2018(April-June)Email:[email protected] ISSN:2395-2636 (P); 2321-3108(O)and even the artillery, but the stumps of the oaktrees torn up by the summer’s fighting continue toprotrude from the blanket of white. Thus snow is16merely a fight's casual stop and a cease-fire.At the officers’ friendly meeting in theevening, Frederic Henry apologizes to the priest fornot visiting the latter’s home region of Abruzzi.Instead he spent his leave drinking and consortingwith fallen women of the town. The baiting of thepriest by his fellow Italian officers resumes.Hemingway wants to refer that for army men casuallove affairs are important to add some merryatmospheres for the rigid life of warriors. Moreover,true love is eventually could be present at war timesto add more morality to those who honestly defends17it despite the brutality of war.Upon the Frederic Henry’s return to thefront, what he earlier referred to as the “permanentrain” of winter is over for the time being, and in itsplace are warm sunshine and spring greenery. Theabsence here of the novel’s primary symbol of deathwould seem to disappear. Still, the snow, the onlything that truly halts the fighting each year, hasmelted. Battle is therefore inevitable: “Next weekthe war starts again,” Lieutenant Rinaldi reports, (AFarewell to Arms, p.5). Rinaldi is a humanist whosesensual values are to be contrasted with