Impact Of Establishment Techniques And Maturity Duration .

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Agric Res (September 2018) 309-7FULL-LENGTH RESEARCH ARTICLEImpact of Establishment Techniques and Maturity Durationof Pigeon Pea Cultivars on Yield, Water Productivityand Properties of SoilY. P. Singh1 Sudhir Singh2 Prabhakar Nanda3 Anil Kumar Singh4Received: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published online: 7 June 2018Ó The Author(s) 2018Abstract India is the leading country with respect to area and production of pulse crop pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.).However, the productivity of this crop is too low and almost static for the last five decades due to cultivation of long-durationcultivars that are prone to climatic variations causing temporary water logging, drought and frost. Proper selection of thecultivar and use of appropriate crop establishment may help in enhancing productivity. Therefore, a field investigation wascarried out for 3 consecutive years to determine the impact of establishment techniques on cultivars of two maturity durations—long (250–280 days; cv. JA-4) and short (130–145 days; cv. ICPL-88039), grown using the conventional tillage (CT),minimum tillage (MT), zero tillage (ZT) and broad bed furrow (BBF). The BBF method significantly improved the growth,biological yield, harvest index ratio, water productivity and physicochemical properties compared to the CT, MT and ZT. Theyield of pigeon pea seed and stalk under the BBF increased 9.9 and 4.1% compared to the CT. The short-duration cultivarproduced higher yield (16.8%) in frost-affected year (2012–2013) but was at par with the long-duration cultivar during thenormal climatic condition year (2013–2015). Overall, the short-duration cultivar produced significantly higher yield. Land useefficiency and total water use were significantly higher for the long-duration cultivar a compared to the short-duration cultivar,whereas production efficiency and water productivity were higher for the short-duration cultivar. Compared to the other tillagepractices, BBF showed significantly higher organic carbon and infiltration rate but decreased pH. The trend of infiltration ratewas in the order BBF [ ZT [ MT [ CT. The bulk density of surface (0–15 cm) and sub-surface (15–30 cm) layers weresignificantly lower under the BBF compared to the other tillage practices. Maximum increment of available N, P, K and S insurface soil (0–15 cm) was recorded under the BBF. For the short-duration maturity cultivar of pigeon pea the BBF methodappeared beneficial in terms of assured higher yield, improved water productivity and physicochemical properties of soil undervariable climatic conditions in Central India.Keywords Tillage Pigeon pea Yield Water productivity Physicochemical properties Climatic conditions Broad bed furrow Biological yield & Y. P. [email protected] indexSudhir [email protected] [email protected] Kumar [email protected] pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) is a major seedlegume (pulse) grown in about 50 countries in the tropicsand subtropics and accounts for * 5% of global pulseproduction. In Asia, it is grown in 4.33 m ha with a production of 3.8 m t. India has the largest area (3.38 m ha)followed by Myanmar, China and Nepal [21]. The Indiansubcontinent alone contributes nearly 92% of the total1AICRP-IWM, R. V. S. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya-ZARS,Morena 476 001, India2R. V. S. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya-KVK, Guna, India3Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneshwar, India4R. V. S. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Gwalior, India123

272pigeon pea production of the world. Although India leadsthe world both in area and production, productivityremained almost static during last 50 years [23]. In2013–2014, productivity was around 25% lower(730 kg ha-1) than the world average (910 kg ha-1).Pigeon pea is known to provide several benefits to the soilas soil ameliorant. For instance, it is known that it adds40–50 kg N ha-1 to the soil through biological nitrogenfixation and leaf fall [1].It has been observed that the long-duration pigeon peacultivars (250–280 days) that occupy fields for nearlywhole of the year get damaged by the winter frost. On theother hand, short-duration cultivars have been found to fitwell in various multiple cropping systems under irrigatedor rainfed conditions. These short-duration high yieldingcultivars enable a second crop which can be wheat, barley,mustard or chickpea in the rabi season. Short-durationcultivars mature in about 130–145 days and can escape therisk of frost [17].Pigeon pea crop is planted after 5–7 tillage operations inrainy (kharif) season in North, Western and Central India.Sowing is done in flat bed which is prone to water loggingresulting in plant mortality and higher incidence of fusarium wilt and phytopthora blight [27]. Land preparationrequires high input of energy and results in loss of soilmoisture due to a number of ploughings and increased costof cultivation. Further, this also delays sowing that leads tolate sowing of winter crops such as wheat and barley.Resource conservation agriculture (RCT) practices such aszero tillage (ZT) and bed planting have been shown to bebeneficial in terms of improving physicochemical soilproperties, water use, crop productivity, time saving andfarmers’ income [11, 12]. ZT is widely adopted for sowingof wheat in North-Western Indo-Gangetic Plains IGP,particularly where rice is harvested late. In wheat, ZT hasbeen demonstrated to reduce irrigation requirements compared with CT by using residual water more effectively[5, 10]. It can save 13–33% water use and 75% fuel consumption in wheat [18], whereas bed planting has thepotential to save water by 30–50% in wheat [25, 32]. Otherbenefits include reduced seed rate, rain water conservation,mechanical weeding, less crop lodging and soil erosion [9].However, the information on comparative performance oflong- and short-duration maturity cycle pigeon pea cultivarin response to establishment technique is lacking. In viewof above, this study was planned to evaluate the relationships of establishment techniques and maturity cycle ofpigeon pea on yield, water productivity and physicochemical properties under sandy loam soils of CentralIndia.123Agric Res (September 2018) 7(3):271–279Materials and MethodsExperimental SiteA field experiment was carried out at the research farm ofZonal Agricultural Research Station R.V.S. Krishi VishwaVidyalaya (RVSKVV), Morena, Madhya Pradesh (MP),India. The study area lies 26 280 N–latitude and 77 590 E—longitude with an altitude 179 m. The agro-climatic regionof MP is Central Plateau and Hills Region. The state isfurther divided into 11 sub agro-climatic zones, and Morena district falls under Gird agro-climatic zone. The climate of this zone is characterized as semi-arid, extremelycold during December–January (- 1.0 C minimum temperature) and hot during May–June (49 C maximumtemperature). The major climatic vulnerabilities of thezone are frost, drought and heat. Average annual rainfall ofthis zone is 701 mm, mostly concentrated in July andAugust. The temperature and rainfall pattern during studyperiod of experimental farm is given in Fig. 1. The minimum and maximum temperature ranges were 0–47.5, 4–47and 3–48 C, while total rainfall received was 1074, 1028and 482 mm, during 2012–2013, 2013–2014 and2014–2015, respectively. Maximum quantity of rainfall isreceived in the months of July and August. Out of experimentation years, minimum temperature 0 C was recordedon 8th January 2013 and frost infestation was also seen.The soil of the experimental field was alluvial, non-calcareous in nature, and no hard pan exists up to 120 cmdepth. The effective soil depth was 150 cm. Permeabilityand drainage conditions of these soils were moderate.Water table varies from 120 to 140 feet.Soil Sampling and AnalysisSoil samples were collected from 0 to 15 cm layer beforesowing and after harvest of the third crop from threelocations within a plot. Freshly collected soil samples weremixed thoroughly, air-dried, crushed to pass through a2-mm sieve and stored in plastic jars before analysis.Organic carbon was analyzed by Walkley and Blackmethod [30]; available N by Kjeltec-II auto analyzer, P byOlsen method [19], S by Chesnin and Yien method [3], Kby NH4OAc extraction and Zn by DTPA extractionmethod. Bulk density of soil from 0–15 and 15–30 cmlayers was determined by using clod method [2]. Infiltration rate was measured after harvest of crop using a doublering infiltrometer. The soil of the experimental plot was asandy loam in texture (Typic Ustochrept) with 59% sand,25% silt and 16% clay, well drained having infiltration rateof 7.3 mm h-1, slightly alkaline in reaction with pH 7.95and bulk density 1.55 Mg m-3. The soil was low in soluble

Agric Res (September 2018) 7(3):271–279273Fig. 1 Monthly total rainfall,minimum and maximumtemperature duringexperimentation periodsalts (EC 0.29 dS m-1) and organic carbon (3.4 g kg-1).The other soil characteristics were: deficient in availablenitrogen (165 kg ha-1) and sulphur (9.9 kg ha-1), mediuminphosphorus(12.6 kg ha-1)andpotassium-1(264 kg ha ).Experimental DetailsThe experiment was conducted for 3 years (2012–2015) insplit plot design [20] with 3 replications. Four tillagepractices for crop establishment were used as main plot.Tillage practices were: conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage sowing by seed cum fertilizer drill (MT), zerotill sowing by zero till seed cum fertilizer drill (ZT) andsowing by broad raised-bed furrow seed cum fertilizer drill(BBF). Details of various tillage practices followed were—two harrowing followed by two ploughing by cultivatoralong with plunking and crop sown by single box seed drillfor CT; two ploughing by cultivator along with plunkingand sowing by seed cum fertilizer drill for MT; directseeding by zero till seed cum fertilizer drill for ZT and twoploughing by cultivator along with plunking and sowing bybroad bed seed cum fertilizer drill for BBF, respectively.The leaf litter and stubbles of previous pigeon pea crop(cutting at 30 cm height at maturity) were retained on thesurface in ZT, whereas there were incorporated duringtillage in CT, MT and BBF plots. The sowing methods aregiven in Fig. 2. The long (JA-4)- and short-duration (ICPL88039) cultivars were sown in subplots (50 m2). Pigeonpea treated cultivars (2 g Thiram, Rhizobium and PSM @Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of different sowing methods123

27420 g kg-1 seed) was sown @ 18 kg ha-1 in fourth week ofJune in every year after pre-irrigation (7 cm). Imazethapyr10% SL @ 75 g ha-1 at 18–20 DAS was applied forcontrol of weeds in all treatments. Full recommended doseof chemical fertilizers (20 kg N, 50 kg P2O5, 20 kg K2Oand 30 kg S ha-1) was applied as basal in all treatments.The sources of N, P, K and S were urea, di-ammoniumphosphate, muriate of potash and elemental sulphur,respectively. Irrigation was applied once in long-durationcultivar in normal as well as frost infestation year for regrowth, whereas short-duration maturity cultivar wasgrown as rainfed. One spray of trizophos @ 750 ml ha-1was applied for control of pod borer at flowering stage ofcrop.Crop Harvesting and ObservationsShort-duration cultivar was harvested in third week ofNovember, while long-duration cultivar in the fourth weekof March during all the years. At the time of maturity ofpigeon pea, growth characters of 20 randomly selectedplants from each treatment and replication were recorded.After harvest, seed and stalk yields and 1000-seed weight(oven dried at 70 C) were recorded. Harvest index wascalculated by Seed yield/Seed ? stalk yield. The landuse and production efficiency were calculated as: Land useefficiency (%) Total duration of crop/365 9 100, andproduction efficiency (kg ha-1 day-1) Total seed production ha-1/Total duration of crop.Water Management StudiesIrrigation water and surface run-off were measured using aParshall Flume having 15-cm throat width. Soil watercontent of soil profile (0–150 cm) was measured gravimetrically, at 15 cm increment of first two layers and30 cm increment subsequently. Soil moisture (%) wasdetermined thermo-gravimetrically. The total water usedwas estimated by the water balance equation: Total wateruse (ET) S ? I ? P ? C - D - R.In which S change in soil moisture in root zone;I irrigation water applied; P effective rainfall; C ground water contribution; D downward movement fromcrop root zone; and R surface water run-off.Change in soil moisture in root zone was determined bysampling at successive intervals. During cropping period oflong- and short-maturity duration cultivar of pigeon pea,the rainfall received was 989 and 945, 849 and 736 and 388and 367 mm, during 2012–2013, 2013–2014 and2014–2015, respectively. The surface run-off was 199 mm,50 mm during only 2012–2013 and 2013–2014. The contribution from ground water and downward drainage wasnil because of good distribution of rainfall, i.e. higher123Agric Res (September 2018) 7(3):271–279(33–62) number of rainy days. Irrigation water productivitywas calculated as: Water productivity (kg seed m-3) Seed yield of pigeon pea (kg ha-1)/Total water use(m-3 ha-1).Results and DiscussionGrowth CharactersSowing by BBF significantly increased growth charactersas compared to other tillage practices like CT, MT and ZT(Table 1). The high intensity rains (113.6 mm) receivedduring July 2012 caused high plant mortality in the flat bed(CT, MT and ZT) sown crop as the plants were in the initialstage (16 days old). The average plant mortality under CT,MT and ZT was 21–23%, but only 3% in BBF. Theincrease in plant height, primary and secondary branches,number of pods plant-1 and length of pods under BBF was7.9, 9.4, 6.5, 8.0 and 4.6% as compared to CT. Maximumvalues of growth under BBF appeared to be due to constanthigher moisture availability and additional surface area fortranspiration compared to CT. Minimum v