Competitiveness In Tourism Indicators For Measuring

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Please cite this paper as:Dupeyras, A. and N. MacCallum (2013), “Indicators forMeasuring Competitiveness in Tourism: A GuidanceDocument”, OECD Tourism Papers, 2013/02, 923-enOECD Tourism Papers 2013/02Indicators for MeasuringCompetitiveness in TourismA GUIDANCE DOCUMENTAlain Dupeyras, Neil MacCallum


This work is published on the responsibility of the Secretary-General of the OECD. The opinionsexpressed and arguments employed herein do not necessarily reflect the official views of the Organisationor of the governments of its member countries.This document and any map included herein are without prejudice to the status of or sovereignty over anyterritory, to the delimitation of international frontiers and boundaries and to the name of any territory, cityor area. OECD 2013You can copy, download or print OECD content for your own use, and you can include excerpts fromOECD publications, databases and multimedia products in your own documents, presentations, blogs,websites and teaching materials, provided that suitable acknowledgment of OECD as source and copyrightowner is given. All requests for commercial use and translation rights should be submitted [email protected]

ABOUT 3ABOUT THE OECDThe OECD is a multi-disciplinary inter-governmental organisation of 34 member countrieswhich engages in its work an increasing number of non-members from all regions of the world. TheOrganisation’s core mission today is to help governments work together towards a stronger, cleaner,fairer global economy. Through its network of 250 specialised committees and working groups, theOECD provides a setting where governments compare policy experiences, seek answers to commonproblems, identify good practice, and co-ordinate domestic and international policies.The OECD member countries are: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, the CzechRepublic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Israel,Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal,the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom and theUnited States. The European Commission takes part in the work of the OECD.ABOUT THE TOURISM COMMITTEEThe OECD has a long-standing expertise on tourism. Tourism is located in the OECD Centre forEntrepreneurship, SMEs and Local Development (CFE). The Tourism Committee, created in 1948,acts as the OECD forum for exchange, and for monitoring policies and structural changes affectingthe development of domestic and international tourism. It actively promotes the sustainable economicgrowth of tourism.Addressing the major challenges faced by the tourism industry, and maximising tourism's fulleconomic potential, requires an integrated and multi-faceted approach to tourism policy developmentacross many government levels and departments. In this environment, OECD members seeconsiderable benefit in co-operating to address economic, sustainability and employment issues, andpromote tourism policy performance and evaluation, innovation and liberalisation of tourism. A closerco-operation with major emerging economies is also seen as being critical to achieving a strongimpact with this work.The website of the Tourism Committee provides detailed informationabout the OECD activities on Tourism.ABOUT THE PAPERMature tourism economies need to regain competitiveness as a new source of growth. Activepolicies require a good understanding of the determinants of competitiveness. This measurementframework includes a short list of core and additional indicators to guide governments in theiranalysis of tourism competitiveness and to inform tourism policy development. This framework is tobe considered by countries as a toolkit and a guide. Pilot testing of the indicators will drive the workforward. The report was reviewed and approved by the OECD Tourism Committee on 10 April 2013.OECD TOURISM PAPERS – GREEN INNOVATION IN TOURISM SERVICES - OECD

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 4ACKNOWLEDGMENTSAlain Dupeyras, Head of Tourism, OECD, co-ordinated the project on the indicators for measuringcompetitiveness in tourism. This report has been drafted by Mr Neil MacCallum([email protected]) and the OECD Secretariat ([email protected]). It has benefitedfrom the inputs of numerous members and partners (e.g. case studies, comments, drafting suggestions) andfrom the support of the informal experts’ group on competitiveness issues.The work has benefited from a large and participative process. 30 member and partner countries(Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland,France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland,Portugal, Romania, Slovak republic, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom)provided information on their work in this area. The work has also benefited from inputs from the OECDunits on Monitoring Well-Being and Progress and on Purchasing Power Parities.Two informal meetings of experts on measuring competitiveness in tourism have also been organisedto allow a detailed discussion of the issues, to more closely associate partner organisations, and to examineOECD work under development: An informal meeting of experts and country representatives held in Vienna on 27-28 June 2012was hosted by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Economy, Family and Youth and Statistics Austria.A second informal meeting of experts was held in Paris on 18 January 2013, hosted by the OECD.This meeting provided feedback and a summary of comments and suggestions from recent countryconsultations and telephone discussions on updating the framework and choice of core indicators.From this discussion, the choice of core and additional indicators was clarified.Other organisations have also participated in the development of the work and have providedfeedback, comments and inputs [UNEP, World Economic Forum, Exceltur (Spain), International Center ofStudies on the Tourist Economy (CISET), Institute for Tourism Research in Northern Europe (NIT) andChemonics].OECD TOURISM PAPERS – INDICATORS FOR MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS IN TOURISM - OECD

OVERVIEW 5TABLE OF CONTENTSOVERVIEW .6MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS IN TOURISM .10THE INDICATORS .17CORE INDICATORS .181. Tourism Direct Gross Domestic Product .182. Inbound tourism revenues per visitor by source market .203. Overnights in all types of accommodation .224. Exports of tourism services .245. Labour productivity in tourism services .266. Purchasing Power Parities (PPPs) and tourism prices .287. Country entry visa requirements .308. Natural resources and biodiversity.329. Cultural and creative resources .3410. Visitor Satisfaction.3611. National Tourism Action Plan .38SUPPLEMENTARY INDICATORS .40Market diversification and growth markets .40Employment in tourism by age, education levels and type of contracts .42Consumer price index for tourism .44Air connectivity and inter-modality .46OECD Better Life Index .48FUTURE DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS .50Government budget appropriations for tourism .50Company mortality rate .52Use of e-tourism and other innovative services .53Structure of tourism supply chains .55AREAS FOR DEVELOPMENT .56MOVING FORWARD: THE PILOT TESTING OF THE INDICATORS .59REFERENCES .60TablesTable 1.Table 2.Key elements defining competitiveness in tourism .16List of Core, Supplementary and Future Development Indicators .17BoxesBox 1. Defining competitiveness in tourism.14OECD TOURISM PAPERS – INDICATORS FOR MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS IN TOURISM - OECD

OVERVIEW 6OVERVIEWTourism is recognised as one of the key sectors of development in all countries and a major source ofincome, jobs and wealth creation. It also plays a wider role in promoting the image and internationalperception of a country externally as well as influencing complementary domestic policies. This range ofinfluence and importance creates challenges in measuring competitiveness in tourism.Understanding country competitiveness in tourism is a major consideration for policy makers and amajor challenge for professionals in providing evidence to inform decision making. Various indicatorshave been developed by different organisations over the years to address particular aspects ofcompetitiveness but there has remained a lack of an overall measurement framework for competitivenessin tourism for the use of governments. The current work by member and partner countries seeks to addressthis gap and make a positive contribution to the practical measurement of competitiveness.The influences on competitiveness can change quickly and this dynamic creates further challengesand a need for on-going research and development on indicators. Global economic and tourism trends,including changing market trends and travel behaviours, the role of social media and new sources ofdemand and growth all increase the importance of the topic and the ability of OECD and partner countriesto compete within the changing global marketplace.The OECD’s work identifies a set of indicators that can be applied within an overall framework toassess country competitiveness. The OECD approach is to create a limited set of meaningful and robustindicators useful for governments to evaluate and measure tourism competitiveness in their country overtime and to guide them in their policy choices. The aim of the framework is not to produce an index or aranking of the most competitive countries, but to provide a tool guide for countries to analyse tourismcompetitiveness and inform policy.The findings build on previous OECD work and on members and partners contributions over the pasttwo years. The work has benefited from a highly participative process with extensive country involvementthrough survey of country practices, a series of discussions at the OECD Tourism Committee meetings, aseries of follow up discussion and submissions as well as two informal meetings of practitioners. Surveyresponses and contributions were received from 30 member and partner countries (Australia, Austria,Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Czech republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania,Slovak republic, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom) as well as contributionsfrom various organisations including UNEP, WEF, Exceltur (Spain), International Center of Studies on theTourist Economy (CISET), Institute for Tourism Research in Northern Europe (NIT), Chemonics, OECDunits on Monitoring Well-Being and Progress an