Status Of Groundwater Levels And Storage Volume In The .

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Prepared in cooperation with the City of Wichita, KansasStatus of Groundwater Levels and Storage Volume in theEquus Beds Aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, 2012 to 2014LittlekacBlt EmmaCreekNewtoneekCr0MudCreekttleKe-15Ea srve-20-5Mid d le Emma CreekRi-10Dry CreekWest Emma Creek-5A r k a n s as-5 VEY COUNTYSEDGWICK COUNTY0LiJester CnsArkattleBentley00K96as0RiervSEDGWICK COUNTYRENO COUNTYMountHopeValleyCenterArkansasRiv erScientific Investigations Report 2014–5185U.S. Department of the InteriorU.S. Geological Surveykree

Front cover. Figure 18 of this report.

Status of Groundwater Levels and StorageVolume in the Equus Beds Aquifer nearWichita, Kansas, 2012 to 2014By Cristi V. Hansen, Joshua A. Whisnant, and Jennifer L. Lanning-RushPrepared in cooperation with the City of Wichita, KansasScientific Investigations Report 2014–5185U.S. Department of the InteriorU.S. Geological Survey

U.S. Department of the InteriorSALLY JEWELL, SecretaryU.S. Geological SurveySuzette M. Kimball, Acting DirectorU.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2014For more information on the USGS—the Federal source for science about the Earth, its natural and livingresources, natural hazards, and the environment, visit http://www.usgs.gov or call 1–888–ASK–USGS.For an overview of USGS information products, including maps, imagery, and publications,visit http://www.usgs.gov/pubprodTo order this and other USGS information products, visit http://store.usgs.govAny use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by theU.S. Government.Although this information product, for the most part, is in the public domain, it also may contain copyrighted materialsas noted in the text. Permission to reproduce copyrighted items must be secured from the copyright owner.Suggested citation:Hansen, C.V., Whisnant, J.A., and Lanning-Rush, J.L., 2014, Status of groundwater levels and storage volumein the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, 2012 to 2014: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific InvestigationsReport 2014–5185, 39 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145185.ISSN 2328-0328 (online)

iiiAcknowledgmentsThe authors acknowledge the assistance of Michael Jacobs, Debra Ary, Rich Robinson, andstaff of the city of Wichita; and Tim Boese, Steve Flaherty, and staff of Equus Beds GroundwaterManagement District Number 2 for providing water-level data and for their technical reviews,which contributed to improved technical and editorial clarity of the report.Technical reviews by U.S. Geological Survey employees Brian Kelly and Geoff Delin also contributed to improved technical and editorial clarity of the report.

n.1Purpose and Scope.2Description of Study Area.2Hydrogeology of the Study Area.4Previous Studies.6Methods.7Shallow and Deep Parts of the Equus Beds Aquifer.7Water Levels.7Water-Level Measurements.7Data Quality and Limitations.8Water-Level Altitudes.8Water-Level Change.10Specific Yield.10Total Aquifer Storage Volume.10Aquifer Storage-Volume Change.10Precipitation.11Water-Use.11Water-level Altitude Maps.11Winter 2012.12Winter 2013.12Winter 2014.12Summer 2012.12Water-Level and Storage-Volume Changes in the Equus Beds Aquifer.19Predevelopment to Winter 2014.25Predevelopment to Summer 2012.291993 to Winter 2014.291993 to Summer 2012.32Summary.32References Cited.35Appendix.39Figures1.2.Map showing location of study area near Wichita, south-central Kansas.3Graphs showing relation of precipitation and water use for the city of Wichitapublic supply and agricultural irrigation in the study area, 1938 through 2013.53. Graph showing statistical relation between annual groundwater irrigation use andaverage annual precipitation in the study area, 1988 through 2012.6

v4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.16.17.18.19.Map showing static water-level altitudes in the shallow part of the Equus Bedsaquifer, winter 2012.13Map showing static water-level altitudes in the deep part of the Equus Bedsaquifer, winter 2012.14Map showing static water-level altitudes in the shallow part of the Equus Bedsaquifer, winter 2013.15Map showing static water-level altitudes in the deep part of the Equus Bedsaquifer, winter 2013.16Map showing static water-level altitudes in the shallow part of the Equus Bedsaquifer, winter 2014.17Map showing static water-level altitudes in the deep part of the Equus Bedsaquifer, winter 2014.18Map showing water-level altitudes in the shallow part of the Equus Beds aquifer,summer 2012.20Map showing water-level altitudes in the deep part of the Equus Beds aquifer,summer 2012.21Graph showing average measured water-level changes in the Equus Beds aquiferin the shallow part of the aquifer since predevelopment and in the shallow anddeep parts of the aquifer since 1993.24Graph showing storage-volume changes since predevelopment and since 1993 inthe study area, the basin storage area, and the central part of the study area.26Map showing static water-level changes in the shallow part of the Equus Bedsaquifer, predevelopment to winter 2014.27Graph showing annual groundwater use in the central part of the study area and inthe rest of the study area and average annual precipitation in the study area, 1988through 2012.28Map showing water-level changes in the shallow part of the Equus Beds aquifer,predevelopment to summer 2012.30Map showing static water-level changes in the shallow part of the Equus Bedsaquifer, 1993 to winter 2014.31Map showing water-level changes in the shallow part of the Equus Beds aquifer,1993 to summer 2012.33Map showing water-level changes in the deep part of the Equus Beds aquifer 1993to summer 2012.34Tables1.2.3.Streamgages and low-head dams in and near the study area, south-central Kansas.9Precipitation stations in and near the study area, south-central Kansas.11Average water-level changes, storage-volume changes, and total aquifer storagevolume in the Equus Beds aquifer near Wichita, south-central Kansas,predevelopment to winter 2014.221–1. Measured and interpolated water-level altitudes in the Equus Beds aquifer,predevelopment, 1993, winter 2012, summer 2012, winter 2013, and winter 2014.39

viConversion FactorsInch/Pound to SIMultiplyByTo obtainLengthinch (in.)2.54centimeter (cm)foot (ft)0.3048meter (m)1.609kilometer (km)mile (mi)Areaacre4,047square meter (m2)acre0.4047hectare (ha)acre0.004047square kilometer (km2)square mile (mi2)square mile (mi2)259.02.590hectare (ha)square kilometer (km2)Volumeacre-foot (acre-ft)acre-foot (acre-ft)1,2330.32581cubic meter (m3)million gallons (Mgal)Flow ratecubic foot per second (ft3/s)0.02832cubic meter per second (m3/s)million gallons per day (Mgal/d)0.04381cubic meter per second (m3/s)Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit ( F) may be converted to degrees Celsius ( C) as follows: C ( F-32)/1.8Vertical coordinate information is referenced to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988(NAVD 88)Horizontal coordinate information is referenced to the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83)Altitude, as used in this report, refers to distance above the vertical datum.

Status of Groundwater Levels and Storage Volume in theEquus Beds Aquifer near Wichita, Kansas, 2012 to 2014By Cristi V. Hansen, Joshua A. Whisnant, and Jennifer L. Lanning-RushAbstractDevelopment of the Wichita well field in the Equus Bedsaquifer in southwest Harvey County and northwest SedgwickCounty began in the 1940s to supply water to the city ofWichita. The decline of water levels in the Equus Beds aquiferwas noted soon after the development of the Wichita well fieldbegan. Development of irrigation wells began in the 1960s.City and agricultural withdrawals led to substantial water-leveldeclines. Water-level declines likely enhanced movement ofbrines from past oil and gas activities near Burrton, Kansas,as well as natural saline water from the Arkansas River intothe Wichita well field area. Large chloride concentrations maylimit use, or require the treatment of water from the well fieldfor irrigation or public supply. In 1993, the city of Wichitaadopted the Integrated Local Water Supply Program to ensurean adequate water