Flat Pack 5: An Overview Of Energy Efficiency .

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Flexible Delivery Flat-Pack ModuleAn Overview of Energy EfficiencyOpportunities in Electrical EngineeringProduced byThe University of Adelaide and Queensland University ofTechnology (The Natural Edge Project)The EEERE Project:Energy Efficiency Education Resources for EngineeringConsortium Partners:Project Partners:

Energy Efficiency Education Resources for EngineeringElectrical Engineering Flat-PackCitation DetailsAll resources developed for the EEERE project are made available to the public through the CreativeCommons Attributes licence. Accordingly, this document should be cited in the following manner:Hargroves, K., Gockowiak, K., Wilson, K., and Desha, C., (2014) Introduction to Energy Efficiency Opportunitiesin Electrical Engineering, The University of Adelaide and Queensland University of Technology, commissionedby the Australian Government Department of Industry, Canberra.AcknowledgementsThe team from Adelaide University and QUT that developed this document acknowledge the work of ourcolleagues at QUT David Sparks, Fiona McKeague, and Cheryl Desha who we supported to develop theaccompanying video resources, along with the partners involved. The consortium thanks the 40workshop participants (Brisbane, Sydney and Melbourne) including stakeholder partners, EngineersAustralia College Members, industry and academic colleagues, who provided their time and ideas sogenerously during the stakeholder engagement parts of the project, and to those who have assisted inreviewing the drafted resources, in particular Alan Pears, energy efficiency expert, and Dr NesimiErtugrul, University of Adelaide. We would like to thank the students at the University of Adelaide whoprovided review comments on the lecture and the accompanying video resource. The consortium thanksour project partners for their continued commitment to building capacity in delivering sustainablesolutions, and the federal government for funding the initiative, in particular Mr Stuart Richardson, MrLuiz Ribeiro, Ms Denise Caddy and Mr Nick Jackson, for their contribution to engineering capacitybuilding. Material contained in this document includes content drawn from The Natural Edge Project(TNEP) Sustainable Energy Solutions Program and is adapted herein as per licencing agreements withCSIRO and Griffith University.Project BackgroundEnergy efficiency is widely recognised as the simplest and most cost-effective way to manage risingenergy costs and reduce Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions. Promoting and implementing energyefficiency measures across multiple sectors requires significant development and advancement of theknowledge and skills base in Australia, and around the world. Engineering has been specifically identifiedas a profession with opportunities to make substantial contributions to a clean and energy-efficientfuture. To further enable skills development in this field, the Department of Industry commissioned aconsortium of Australian universities to collaboratively develop four innovative and highly targetedresources on energy efficiency assessments, for use within engineering curricula. These include thefollowing resources informed by national stakeholder engagement workshops coordinated by RMIT:1.Ten ‘flat-pack’ supporting teaching and learning notes for each of the key disciplines of engineering(University of Adelaide and Queensland University of Technology);2.Ten short ‘multi-media bite’ videos to compliment the flat-packs (Queensland University of Technologyand the University of Adelaide);3.Two ‘deep-dive case studies’ including worked calculations (University of Wollongong); and4.A ‘virtual reality experience’ in an energy efficiency assessment (Victoria and LaTrobe Universities).These resources have been developed with reference to a 2012 investigation into engineering education1funded by the Australian Government’s former Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism (RET), andthrough further consultation workshops with project partners and industry stakeholders. At theseworkshops, participants confirmed the need for urgent capacity building in energy efficiencyassessments, accompanied by clear guidance for any resources developed, to readily incorporate theminto existing courses and programs. Industry also confirmed three key graduate attributes of priorityfocus for these education resources, comprising the ability to: think in systems; communicate betweenand beyond engineering disciplines; and develop and communication the business case for energyefficiency opportunities.2

Energy Efficiency Education Resources for EngineeringElectrical Engineering Flat-PackContent1. ‘Allen Key’ Learning Points . 42. Energy Efficiency and Electrical Engineering . 52.1. Why is Energy Efficiency important for Engineers? . 52.2. Why is Energy Efficiency important for Engineering Students? . 83. Key Knowledge and Skills for Electrical Engineers . 104. Energy Efficiency Opportunities in Electrical Engineering . 114.1. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) . 114.2. Electric Motor Systems . 124.3. Energy Efficient Facility Design . 135. Case Studies of Electrical Engineering and Energy Efficiency . 145.1. R.M. Williams . 14The Challenge . 14The Solution. 145.2. MINUS40 . 14The Challenges . 15The Solutions . 156. Key Supporting Resources . 166.1. Energy Efficiency Exchange (EEX) . 166.2. The Natural Edge Project (TNEP). 167. References . 173

Energy Efficiency Education Resources for EngineeringElectrical Engineering Flat-Pack1. ‘Allen Key’ Learning PointsElectrical Engineers will be a key part of the World’s response to climate change, from designing newelectrical equipment to be highly energy efficient, designing renewable energy technology, tobalancing electricity grid loading to accommodate distributed variable loads. Electrical Engineershave critical skills the economy needs to thrive in a carbon constrained future. The following learningpoints provide a summary of the Electrical Engineering video – our ‘Allen keys’ to building the flatpack content!Watch the ‘ElectricalEngineering’ MMB1. Electrical Engineers are critical to society responding to climate change and improving the energyefficiency of many sectors. For instance, moving away from large-scale centralised energy generationsystems that use grids designed for electricity to flow in one direction, to systems that allow fordistributed generation and storage will be a crucial platform for all sectors to receive and manageenergy services.2. It is a dynamic and exciting time for the energy sector. Changes will be driven by issues of energypricing, energy reliability, and energy sustainability. According to the Australian Power Institutegraduates in the next 5 years will need to have gained energy efficiency knowledge and skills to beproductive and effective in their roles. Furthermore, key stakeholders throughout the supply chainwill be looking to Electrical Engineers to assist them to deliver the environmental, economic andsocial outcomes.3. An important opportunity for Electrical Engineers to improve energy efficiency and enhanceeconomic outcomes is through minimising and avoiding wasted energy, as all energy used costsmoney regardless of whether it’s wasted. Electrical Engineers are well placed to use emergingtechnologies and processes to deliver significant energy efficiency improvements, such as the use ofadvanced lighting technologies and the use of control systems to avoid redundant energy demand.4. Awarded the 2014 Business Eco-efficiency Award by the Queensland Government,2 the Carlton &United Breweries facility in Yatala, Queensland, is its third largest brewery in Australia and produces2.5 billion litres of beer each year. Rising electricity prices and the emergence of new lightingtechnologies called for reconsideration of the lighting system and led to the installation of a systemof meters to isolate energy costs to specific areas of the facility. While cost savings provide anincentive to change lighting fixtures, it is important that lighting quality is not compromised.5. The metering found that across the plant lighting accounted for 16 per cent of the total electricityusage – well above the average lighting demand in the USA and Europe of between 6 and 10 percent. Setting a goal of reducing that electricity usage to 6 per cent, and realising that the lightinglevels were double what they needed to be according to Australian Standards, the breweryintroduced a combination of three different lighting solutions in one building that better suited thespace (T5 fluorescent tubing, induction high bay, and LED high bay lighting) and achieved a 50 percent reduction in electricity demand. For instance, the replacement of older fittings with T5fluorescent tubing in one area reduced electricity consumption by 30 per cent and doubled thequality and quantity of lighting.34

Energy Efficiency Education Resources for EngineeringElectrical Engineering Flat-Pack2. Energy Efficiency and Electrical Engineering2.1. Why is Energy Efficiency important for Engineers?In the 21st Century much of the world will experience untold wealth and prosperity that could noteven be conceived only a century ago.4 However as with most, if not all, of the human civilisations,increases in prosperity and population have accumulated significant environmental impacts thatthreaten to result in what Lester Brown refers to as ‘environmentally-induced economic decline’.5There have been a number of significant advances in technology over the last 300 years that havedelivered a step changes in the way industry and society has operated, as shown in Figure 1. Giventhe now advanced level of technological development we are in a very strong position to harnessthis technology to create a ‘6th Wave’ that can deliver significant reductions in a range ofenvironmental pressures, such as air pollution, solid waste, water extraction, biodiversity loss andgreenhouse gas emissions.6Figure 1: A stylistic representation of waves of innovation since the Industrial revolution7What this means is that over the coming decades the impact we are having on the environment willhave a direct negative effect on our economies and societies, this will, and is, lead to louder andlauder calls to reduce negative impacts on the environment which will need innovation andcreativity. In particular there is a fundamental need to shift from fossil fuel based energy to low/nocarbon energy sources, preferably renewable options, in order to significantly reduce greenhousegas emissions. Building on the technologies and processes from the previous waves of innovationengineers are now in a strong position to deliver such a shift and create a range of innovative andcreative solutions to the meet the needs of society, with a key part of this achieving greaterefficiency of the use of resources and energy.5

Energy Efficiency Education Resources for EngineeringElectrical Engineering Flat-PackAccording to the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) in their 1992publication 'Changing Course', the term ‘efficiency’ was used to seek to encapsulate the idea of usingfewer resources and creating less waste and pollution while providing the same or better services,and entailed the following elements: A reduction in the material intensity of goods or services, A reduction in the energy intensity of goods or services, Reduced dispersion of toxic materials, Improved recyclability, Maximum use of renewable resources, Increased durability of products, and Greater service intensity of goods and services.Each of these approaches provides valuable tools to reduce a range of environmental pressures,especially greenhouse gas emissions.Identify an Electrical Example of the application of each element.For each element identify the potential for collaboration with other engineers.Since the late 1990’s Engineers Australia has advocated for Engineers to play a key role in supportingthe achievement of such ambitious targets, and cautions that, ‘The need to make changes in the wayenergy is used and supplied throughout the world represents