Access And Benefi T-sharing Of Animal Genetic Resources

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Access and Benefit-sharing ofAnimal Genetic ResourcesUsing the Nagoya Protocol as a Framework for the Conservationand Sustainable Use of Locally Adapted Livestock BreedsbyIlse Koehler-RollefsonLeague for Pastoral Peoples and Endogenous Livestock Development – LPP&Hartmut MeyerABS Capacity Development Initiative - implemented by theDeutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbHwww.abs-initiative.infofunded byimplemented by

Access and Benefit-sharing of Animal Genetic ResourcesTable of Contents1. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. 42. ABBREVIATIONS. 43. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. 54. INTRODUCTION. 65. ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES: SIGNIFICANCE AND STATUS. 7Definition and importance. 7Number and status of animal genetic resources. 8Diversity of breeding systems. 8Local Breeding systems with emphasis on Adaptation traits. 8Breeding systems for industrial production. 9Intermediate Systems. 10Traditional knowledge (TK) versus scientific knowledge. 10Traditional/Indigenous Knowledge. 10Scientific Knowledge. 11Patterns and directions of exchange. 11Ownership of animal genetic resources. 12Impact of selection on genetic diversity. 13Key points. 146. THREATS TO THE SUSTAINABLE USE AND PROBLEMS OF CONSERVATION. 14Unravelling of traditional systems. 14Lack of data and documentation of local production systems and breeds. 15Promotion of cross-breeding and exotics. 15Current lack of industry interest in developing country genetics. 15The role of subsidies. 15Difficulties of ex-situ conservation. 16In-situ conservation is of the essence. 16The role of bio-piracy. 16Key points. 177. POTENTIAL OF LOCALLY ADAPTED ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES. 17Asset of the poor. 17Need for reducing input costs. 17Climate Adaptation. 17Disease resistance. 18Compliance with animal welfare regulations, organic standards and consumer notions. 18High Value and Specialty Food. 18Higher nutritional value. 18Heritage. 19Taste. 19Key points. 192

8. THE NAGOYA PROTOCOL ON ACCESS AND BENEFIT-SHARING . 20Core elements . 20Implications and meaning of the Nagoya Protocol for animal genetic resources . 20National level . 20International/global level. 219. STAKEHOLDER PERSPECTIVES ON ACCESS AND BENEFIT-SHARING AND THE NAGOYA PROTOCOL . 22Governments . 22Private sector/industry. 22Science/Research . 23Small-scale Livestock Keepers . 23Declaration on Rights . 24Biocultural Community Protocols. 24Key points . 2510. CONCLUSIONS. 2611. TIMELINE OF DISCUSSIONS WITH RESPECT TO ABS OF ANGR. 2812. BIBLIOGRAPHY . 2913. LIST OF PEOPLE CONTACTED . 3314. APPENDICES. 33Appendix 1. Karen Commitment . 33Appendix 2. Bharananganam Declaration. 343

Access and Benefit-sharing of Animal Genetic Resources1. Acknowledgments2. AbbreviationsWe are deeply grateful to Dr. Andreas Drews of the Multidonor ABS Capacity Development Initiative for enablingand supporting this study.ABSAccess and Benefit-SharingAnGRAnimal Genetic ResourcesRelatively few people have dwelt on the implications and options of access and benefit-sharing related to animal genetic resources; those few that do have generously providedtheir ideas and inputs. Most notable of them is the animalgenetic resource unit of FAO, including Irene Hoffmann,Dafydd Pilling and Beate Scherf who made incisive comments. We are also thankful to Pieter Knap who facilitateda consolidated statement about the perspective of the industry in the name of EFFAB. Other important inputs camefrom Dr. Workneh Ayalew, Elli Broxham (SAVE), KamalKishore, Dr. Maria Rosa Lanari and David Steane.BCPBiocultural Community ProtocolCBDConvention on Biological DiversityBrendan Tobin and the participants of the book writingseminar at Griffiths University sharpened the sense of theimportance of customary rights in the management of animal genetic resources by local and indigenous communities.Appreciation is also owed to the very many pastoralists andlocal livestock keepers that one of us (IKR) has had theprivilege of interacting with over more than two decadesand who have shaped her thinking significantly.CGRFA Commission on Genetic Resources for Foodand AgricultureCOPConference of the PartiesEFFABEuropean Federation of Farm Animal BreedersFAnGRFarm Animal Genetic ResourcesFAO Food and Agriculture Organization of theUnited NationsGDPGPAGross Domestic Product Global Plan of Action in Animal GeneticResourcesITPGRFA International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resourcesfor Food and AgricultureITWG-AnGR Intergovernmental Technical Working Groupon Animal Genetic ResourcesLKROIE4Livestock Keepers’ RightsWorld Organisation for Animal Health

3. Executive summary3. Executive summaryAnimal genetic resources are an important subset of biologicaldiversity, composed of the breeds and strains of domesticated animals that humankind has developed out of some 40 wild speciesover the last 10,000 years. They form the foundation of an industry valued at USD 1.4 trillion and are essential to the livelihoodsof 1.3 billion people, including 600 million poor. Animal geneticresources fall under the purview of the Convention on BiologicalDiversity as well as the Nagoya Protocol.This study seeks to investigate the cornerstones of an internationalaccess and benefit-sharing regime for animal genetic resourcesthat would be fair and equitable as well as workable, consideringthe distinctive features of animal genetic resources, as well as theurgent need for maintaining and conserving domestic animal diversity for future generations.The sector is characterized by a large diversity of breeding systems. These range from communal systems placing a premiumon adaptation traits to corporately owned operations aimed atproviding high performance animals that function in industrialsystems. While the former depend on traditional knowledge andare basically open access, the latter involve sophisticated scientificknowledge and are protected by various forms of IntellectualProperty Rights. Because of the large differential in performance,there is currently little interdependence of these systems, althoughthis may change, due to emerging consumer preferences, resourceshortages, climate change, the need to decrease use of antibiotics,and other factors.Some of the distinctive features of animal genetic resources include the need for in-situ conservation (as ex-situ conservation isproving difficult), the linkages between communities and specificbreeds, the patterns and direction of exchange which are currentlymostly North-North, North-South and to some extent SouthSouth, but with limited movements South-North. Important forthe design of an international regime on ABS is the current lackof industry interest in genetics from developing countries, as wellas the potential of local breeds to significantly contribute to ruraldevelopment in-situ if the right types of support are provided.The various stakeholder groups have different opinions on Accessand Benefit-Sharing. Governments are mostly concerned withdeveloping the right kind of material transfer agreements andpreventing any disruption in the flow of animal genetic resources.They also see the need for addressing Livestock Keepers’ Rightsand support (Biocultural) Comm