REVIEWS INECONOMIC GEOLOGYVolume 19ARCHEAN BASE AND PRECIOUSMETAL DEPOSITS, SOUTHERN ABITIBIGREENSTONE BELT, CANADAQUEBECTONTARIOOPATICA SUBPROVINCEChibougamauST KAPURUCT SKASURIAL NGZONEMatagamiNorthern AGBSouthern AGBTimminsCNIPDfzOCTKirkland LakeLLCfzTENTOEFR NE ZOCadillacDoyonRouynBousquet- TIAC SUBPROVINCE0Shining TreePALEOPROTEROZOICClastic rocksARCHEANSiliciclastic rocksIntermediate to felsic intrusionsVolcanic rocksMafic to ultramafic intrusionsMINES (past and currentproducers)GoldCopper, zinc50 kmNickel, copperFaults, high-strain zones,and shear zonesEditorsThomas Monecke, Patrick Mercier-Langevin, and Benoît DubéSOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGISTS, INC.
REVIEWS INECONOMIC GEOLOGYVolume 19ARCHEAN BASE AND PRECIOUSMETAL DEPOSITS, SOUTHERN ABITIBIGREENSTONE BELT, CANADAVolume EditorsThomas MoneckeColorado School of MinesPatrick Mercier-LangevinNatural Resources CanadaGeological Survey of CanadaBenoît DubéNatural Resources CanadaGeological Survey of CanadaSOCIETY OF ECONOMIC GEOLOGISTS, INC.
REVIEWS IN ECONOMIC GEOLOGYPublished by the Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.7811 Shaffer ParkwayLittleton, CO 80127, USAWebsite: segweb.orgE-mail: [email protected] (Print)1933-1495 (Disc)2374-443X (PDF)ISBN978-1-629492-20-9 (Print)978-1-629492-21-6 (Disc)978-1-629495-77-4 (PDF)Reviews in Economic Geology is a series publication of the Society of Economic Geologists designed toaccompany the Society’s Short Course series. Like the Short Courses, each volume provides comprehensive updates on various applied and academic topics for practicing economic geologists and geochemistsin exploration, development, research, and teaching. Volumes are produced in conjunction with eachnew Short Course, first serving as a textbook for that course, and subsequently made available to SEGmembers and others at a modest cost.SEG Publications BoardThrough 2017Richard J. Goldfarb, ChairZhaoshan ChangPatrick Mercier-LangevinThrough 2018Claire M. ChamberlainThrough 2019Sarah A. GleesonShaun L.L. BarkerBrian G. Hoal, ex officioLawrence D. Meinert, EconomicGeology EditorOn the cover: Geologic map of the Abitibi greenstone belt showing the distribution of supracrustal rocks and interveningdomes of intrusive rocks (modified from Thurston et al., 2008). LLCfz Larder Lake-Cadillac fault zone, PDfz PorcupineDestor fault. Inset map shows location of the belt. Copyright 2017, Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.
CONTENTSPrefacevSponsorsviiAuthor BiographiesixIntroduction:Archean Base and Precious Metal Deposits,Southern Abitibi Greenstone Belt, CanadaThomas Monecke, Patrick Mercier-Langevin, Benoît Dubé, and Mark HanningtonChapter 1Geology of the Abitibi Greenstone BeltThomas Monecke, Patrick Mercier-Langevin, Benoît Dubé, and Ben M. FriemanChapter 2Orogenic Greenstone-Hosted Quartz-Carbonate Gold Deposits ofthe Timmins-Porcupine CampBenoît Dubé, Patrick Mercier-Langevin, John Ayer, Brian Atkinson, and Thomas MoneckeChapter 3The Kidd Creek Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit—An UpdateMark D. Hannington, Thomas Gemmell, and Thomas MoneckeChapter 4Physical Volcanology of Komatiites and Ni-Cu-(PGE) Deposits ofthe Southern Abitibi Greenstone BeltMichel G. Houlé, C. Michael Lesher, and S. Préfontaine175181103Chapter 5The Larder Lake-Cadillac Break and Its Gold DistrictsK. Howard Poulsen133Chapter 6Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits of the Noranda CampThomas Monecke, Harold Gibson, and Jean Goutier169Chapter 7The LaRonde Penna Au-Rich Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposit225Patrick Mercier-Langevin, Benoît Dubé, François Blanchet, David Pitre, and Annie Labergeiii
Chapter 8Geology of the Lapa Orogenic Gold DepositPatrick Mercier-Langevin, Marjorie Simard, Richard Dubuc, Jocelyn Côté,Pierre Doucet, Réal Daigneault, and Damien GabouryChapter 9Geology and Hydrothermal Alteration of the World-Class CanadianMalartic Gold Deposit: Genesis of an Archean Stockwork-DisseminatedGold Deposit in the Abitibi Greenstone BeltStéphane De Souza, Benoît Dubé, Vicki McNicoll, Céline Dupuis,Patrick Mercier-Langevin, Robert A. Creaser, and Ingrid Kjarsgaardiv247263
PREFACEDue to the economic importance, accumulated geologicalknowledge, the outstanding degree of preservation of primarygeological relationship, and generally easy access to excellentexposures, the southern Abitibi greenstone belt of Ontarioand Quebec, Canada, represents one of the most importantfield trip destinations for industry professionals and geologystudents worldwide. Gaining field experience in the classicmining camps of the southern Abitibi greenstone belt is particularly important for industry geologists exploring for baseand precious metal deposits.The purpose of the present volume is to provide a comprehensive review of the geology of the major mining camps ofthe southern Abitibi greenstone belt. An overview of recentadvances in the understanding of Neoarchean geology andmetallogeny is provided. The papers collected here also givean update on current deposit models and camp-scale geological factors controlling the location of the world-class depositsof the southern Abitibi greenstone belt, and they emphasizeimplications for deep exploration in Neoarchean greenstoneterranes.This volume was initially compiled as a guidebook for afield trip held in conjunction with the Society of EconomicGeologists 2010 Conference in Keystone on October 6–11,2010. Subsequent modifications and updates were made forthe Society of Economic Geologist Foundation Student FieldTrip, held September 3–11, 2014. As travel distances betweenadjacent mining camps are not large in the southern Abitibigreenstone belt, it is possible to visit the most important minesand key outcrops within a few days. Both field trips commenced in Timmins, Ontario, and ended in Rouyn-Noranda,Quebec. Road logs and descriptions of outcrops visited duringboth field trips are given in the appendices to the respectivechapters of this Reviews in Economic Geology volume.We express our gratitude to the mine geologists and company representatives who assisted in the set-up of the fieldtrips, especially B. Atkinson, E. Barr, F. Blanchet, P. Calloway,B. Drolet, R. Dubuc, D. Gamble, D. Gervais, and D. Pitre.We are indebted to R. Goldfarb for constructive review. Someof the contributions forming part of this volume resultedfrom the collaborative Targeted Geoscientific Initiative ofNatural Resources Canada and the Plan Cuivre project of theMinistère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune du Québec. The production of this volume was financially supportedby Natural Resources Canada and the Colorado School ofMines.Thomas MoneckePatrick Mercier-LangevinBenoît DubéMay 8, 2017v
SPONSORSThe Society of Economic Geologists Publications Boardthanks Natural Resources Canada and the Colorado School of Minesfor their generous financial support of this volume.
AUTHOR BIOGRAPHIESBrian Atkinson graduated in 1977 from McMaster University. He has worked as a professional geoscientist for morethan 30 years. The first five years of his career were in Cordilleran exploration, starting in Yukon with subsequent workthroughout Yukon and British Columbia. His most notableaccomplishment was the first North American discovery ofthe mineral malayaite while exploring for tin-tungsten skarnsin southern Yukon. Following that western experience, Brianworked briefly in northern Ontario exploration before joining the Ontario Geological Survey, working in Quaternarygeology for a year in southern Ontario. He was appointedresource geologist and advanced to resident geologist in RedLake, where he spent 13 years learning about Archean greenstone geology and completing township- and regional-scalemapping. In 1997, he moved to Timmins as regional residentgeologist and retired from this position in December 2014.Brian’s expertise is in Archean greenstone belts, with interestsin mineral deposits and economic geology.Technical Evaluations Group, looking for external growthopportunities.Jocelyn Côté received a B.Sc. degree from Université Lavalin 1986. He has worked in the industry for more than 30 years,mainly in the mining industry as exploration geologist for Barrick Gold at the former Bousquet and Bousquet 2 gold minesfrom 1993 to 2002 and as senior exploration geologist forAgnico Eagle Mines Ltd. at the LaRonde Penna mine from2002 to 2003, at the Regional Division from 2004 to 2006, andat the Lapa gold mine from 2006 to present.Robert A. Creaser holds B.Sc. (Honors, 1984) and Ph.D.(1990) degrees from the Australian National University and LaTrobe University, Australia. He held the position of researchfellow in geochemistry at the California Institute of Technology from 1990 to 1992, where he developed efficient massspectrometry methods for isotopic analysis of osmium, rhenium, and other platinum group elements. He was appointedat the University of Alberta in 1992 and is currently professorand holds the Canada Research Chair in Isotope Geochemistry in the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences.His primary research interest lies in the application of isotopetechniques to further the understanding of fundamental processes that control the origin and evolution of Earth’s crustalrocks. In particular, his current research focus involves continued development and application of the rhenium-osmium(Re-Os) radioactive isotope system for geochronology of sulfide minerals. He has been awarded the Geological Association of Canada’s W.W. Hutchinson Medal (1997), is a Fellowof the Royal Society of Canada (2008), and a DistinguishedMember of the Geological Association of Canada (2007).John Ayer received B.Sc. (1976) and M.Sc. (1979) degreesfrom Carleton University and a Ph.D. degree from OttawaUniversity (1999). He worked five years in mineral exploration across Canada before joining the Ontario GeologicalSurvey (OGS) in 1984, where he continued until retirementin 2011. His work with the OGS included extensive bedrockmapping in the Wabigoon and Abitibi subprovinces of theSuperior Province. He led the Precambrian Mapping Programin northeastern Ontario and was OGS representative on theDiscover Abitibi Initiative and Targeted Geoscience Initiative-3 Abitibi projects. John has been the lead and co-authoron numerous government and journal publications and wasco-editor of a 2008 Economic Geology special issue devotedto base metal and gold metallogeny in the Abitibi greenstonebelt. He was corecipient of the Canadian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Barlow Medal awarded for best geologicalpaper for the 2012 paper in Exploration and Mining Geology, entitled “Structure, Stratigraphy, U-Pb Geochronologyand Alteration Characteristics of Gold Mineralization at theDetour Lake Gold Deposit, Ontario, Canada.” He has beenassociate director of the Mineral Exploration Research Centre within the Earth Sciences Department at Laurentian University in Sudbury since 2013.Réal Daigneault received a B.Sc. degree in 1980 fromUniversity of Montréal and an M.Sc.A. in 1983 from Polytechnique School in Montréal. Working with the Ministèrede l’Energie et des Ressources naturelles du Québec, he hasbeen in charge of the camp-scale mapping of the Chibougamau mining district from 1982 to 1987. He completed a Ph.D.degree at Université Laval in 1991. Since 1988, he has beenprofessor in structural geology at Université du Québec àChicoutimi, conducting numerous research projects involvingmany graduate students, focusing on the major deformationcorridors of the Abitibi greenstone belt and their relationshipto gold and base metal deposits. Réal is currently director ofthe Centre d’Études sur les Ressources Minérales (CERM),a research unit of Université du Québec à Chicoutimi. Since2000, he is also director of CONSOREM, a mineral exploration research consortium that primarily develops innovative,applied exploration tools and concepts for the industry.François Blanchet earned a B.Ing. degree in geologicalengineering from Université Laval in 1995. He has morethan 20 years with the industry, mainly in gold and VMSexploration and mining operations. From 1995 to 2004, hewas successively production geologist, exploration geologist,senior geologist, and then chief geologist at Cambior’s GéantDormant gold mine in northwestern Quebec. From 2005 to2015, he was in charge of exploration and geology in twomajor mining operations in the Doyon-Bousquet-LaRondemining camp in the southern Abitibi greenstone belt. From2005 to 2006, he served as chief of the geology department at Cambior’s Doyon mine and from 2006 to August2015 as geology superintendent at Agnico Eagle MinesLtd. LaRonde Division. In 2015 he joined Agnico EagleMines Project Evaluation Department as manager of theStéphane De Souza graduated from Université du Québecà Montréal in 2004, where he also obtained M.Sc. (2007) andPh.D. (2011) degrees. His doctoral research on mountainbuilding processes, plus a keen interest in economic geology, led him to undertake postdoctoral research (2012–2015)on the genesis of the Canadian Malartic Archean low-grade,bulk-tonnage gold deposit with the Geological Survey ofix
BIOGRAPHIES (continued)Canada as part of the Targeted Geoscience Initiative-4, amultidisciplinary research program on major Canadian oresystems. He also worked in the mineral exploration industryand contributed to mapping projects for the Ministère del’Énergie et des Ressources naturelles du Québec. He is nowprofessor of geology and tectonics at Université du Québecà Montréal, developing and conducting several research andmapping projects aimed at better understanding the genesisof precious and base metal ore deposits and at providing theindustry with improved mineral exploration models.and saprolites. Richard moved back to Canada in 2000 andworked both as exploration and production geologist at various sites in northern Quebec, including the Sigma and Kienagold mines in Val-d’Or, the Joe Mann gold mine in Chibougamau, the Ra