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B.RTissot D.H.Welte,!,-y j i t y r ; , y v ; j / ! iH/ryV i j f i j i ' i - . - i ' j ; ! yU y u n s / i i Petroleum Formationand OccurrenceSecond Revised and Enlarged EditionWith 327 FiguresSpringer-VerlagX OSTO/ 7 Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo 1984g BIBLIOTECA

Contents -'' cf."'} ., Part IV . , . vnruU.-nnmdyu-,' f'A[.IProduction and Accumulation of Organic Matter:A Geological PerspectiveChapter 1 Production and Accumulation of Organic.Matter: The Organic Carbon Cycle1.1 Photosynthesis - The Basis for Mass Production ofOrganic Matter1.2 The Organic Carbon Budget During the History of theEarth1.3 The Organic Carbon Budget in the Black Sea . . . .Summary and Conclusion71113Chapter 2 Evolution of the Biosphere2.1 Phytoplankton and Bacteria2.2 Higher Plants2.3 Geological History of the BiosphereSummary and Conclusion1414171920Chapter 3 Biological Productivity of Modern AquaticEnvironments3.1 Primary Producers of Organic Matter3.2 Factors Influencing Primary Productivity3.3 Present Primary Production of the OceansSummary and ConclusionChapter 4 Chemical Composition of the Biomass:iBacteria, Phytoplankton, Zooplankton,Higher Plants4.1 Proteins and Carbohydrates4.2 Lipids4.3 Lignin and Tannin4.4 Qualitative and Quantitative Occurrence ofImportant Chemical Constituents in Bacteria,Phytoplankton, Zooplankton and Higher Plants . . .332121232830 3131344445

XIVContents4.5 Natural Associations and Their Effects on Biomass Composition50Summary and Conclusion53Chapter 5 Sedimentary Processes and the Accumulationof Organic Matter5.1 Fossil and Modern Sediments Rich in Organic Matter,and Their Geologicallmplication5.2 The Role of Dissolved and Particulate OrganicMatter5.3 Accumulation Mechanisms for Sedimentary OrganicMatterSummary and ConclusionReferences to Part I.f. . . . .Part II,.555557596163 The Fate of Organic Matter in Sedimentary Basins:Generation of Oil and GasChapter I Diagenesis, Catagenesis and Metagenesis ofOrganic Matter1.1 Diagenesis1.2 Catagenesis1.3 Metagenesis and Metamorphismir. Summary and ConclusionChapter 2 Early Transformation of Organic Matter:J,The Diagenetic Pathway from Organisms toGeochemical Fossils and Kerogen2.1 Significance and Main Steps of EarlyTransformations2.2 Biochemical Degradation2.3 Polycondensation2.4 Insolubilization2.5 Isotopic Composition of Organic Matter in YoungSediments2.6 Result and Balance of DiagenesisSummary and ConclusionChapter 3 Geochemical Fossils and Their Significance inPetroleum Formation3.1 Diagenesis Versus Catagenesis: Two DifferentSources of Hydrocarbons in the Subsurface696971727374747581858990929393

Contents3.2 Hydrocarbons Inherited from Living Organisms,,,,,, Directly or Through an Early Diagenesis:Geochemical Fossils (Biological Markers)3.3 n-Alkanes and n-Fatty Acids3.4 Iso-and Anteiso-Alkanes3.5 Cio-branched Alkanes3.6 Acyclic Isoprenoids3.7 Tricyclic Diterpenoids3.8 Steroids and Pentacyclic Triterpenoids: Occurrence inRecent and Ancient Sediments3.9 Fate of Steroids and Triterpenoids During Diagenesisand Catagenesis3.10 Other Polyterpenes3.11 Aromatics3.12 Oxygen and Nitrogen Compounds3.13 Kerogen, the Polar Fraction of Sediments, andAsphaltenes of Crude Oils as Possible Sources ofFossil MoleculesSummary and ConclusionXVChapter 4 Kerogen: Composition and Classification . . .4.1 Definition and Importance of Kerogen4.2 Isolation of Kerogen4.3 Microscopic Constituents of Kerogen4.4 Chemical and Physical Determination of KerogenStructure4.5 Chemical Analysis4.6 Physical Analysis4.7 General Structure of Kerogen4.8 Depositional Environment and Composition ofKerogen: the Evolution Paths4.9 ConclusionSummary and Conclusion131131132133. yrf »i' 40142147151159159Chapters From Kerogen to Petroleum1605.1 Diagenesis, Catagenesis and Metagenesis of Kerogen1605.2 Experimental Simulation of Kerogen Evolution . . . 1695.3 Structural Evolution of Kerogen1745.4 Formation of Hydrocarbons During Catagenesis . . . 1765.5 Isotope Fractionation and Kerogen Evolution . . . . 1895.6 Experimental Generation of Hydrocarbons fromOrganic Material192Summary and Conclusion198

XVIContentsChapter 6 Formation of Gas6.1 Constituents and Characterization of Petroleum Gas .6.2 Gas Generated During Diagenesis of Organic Matter6.3 Gas Generated During Catagenesis and Metagenesisof Organic Matter6.4 Gas Originating from Inorganic Sources6.5 Occurrence and Composition of Gas in SedimentaryBasins: Example of Western Europe6.6 Distribution of Gases in Sedimentary BasinsSummary and ConclusionChapter 7 Formation of Petroleum in Relation toGeological Processes. Timing of Oil and GasGeneration7.1 General Scheme of Petroleum Formation7.2 Genetic Potential and Transformation Ratio7.3 Nature of the Organic Matter. Gas Provinces VersusOil Provinces7.4 Temperature. Time and Pressure7.5 Timing of Oil and Gas Generation7.6 Comparison Between the Time of Source RockDeposition and the Time of Petroleum Generation . .'Summary and ConclusionChapters Coal and Its Relation to Oil and Gas8.1 General Aspects of Coal Formation8.2 The Formation of Peat8.3 Coalification Process8.4 Coal Petrography8.5 Petroleum Generation Summary and ConclusionChapter 9 Oil Shales: A Kerogen-Rich Sediment withPotential Economic Value9.1 Historical9.2 Definition of Oil Shales. Oil Shale Versus PetroleumSource Rock9.3 Composition of Organic Matter9.4 Conditions of Deposition9.5 Oil Shale Density9.6 Pyrolysis of Oil Shales9.7 Oil Yield; Composition of Shale Oil9.8 Oil Shale Distributions and ReservesSummary and ConclusionReferences to Part 6267

ContentsXVIIPart III The Migration and Accumulation of Oil and GasChapter 1 An Introduction to Migration andAccumulation of Oil and GasSummary and ConclusionChapter 2 Physicochemical Aspects of PrimaryMigration2.1 Temperature and Pressure2.2 Compaction2.3 Fluids2.4 Possible Modes of Primary MigrationSummary and al and Geochemical Aspects of'Primary MigrationTime and Depth of Primary MigrationChanges in Composition of Source Rock BitumenVersus Crude OilEvaluation of Geological and Geochemical Aspects ofPrimary MigrationConclusions and Suggestions on Primary Migration .Summary and Conclusion'325325Chapter 4 Secondary Migration and Accumulation . . .4.1 The Buoyant Rise of Oil and Gas Versus CapillaryPressures4.2 Hydrodynamics and Secondary Migration4.3 Geological and Geochemical Implications ofSecondary Migration4.4 Termination of Secondary Migration andAccumulation of Oil and Gas4.5 Distances of Secondary MigrationSummary and Conclusion341351354356Chapter 5 Reservoir Rocks and Traps, the Sites of Oil andGas Pools5.1 Reservoir Rocks5.2 TrapsSummary and ConclusionReferences to Part 7

ContentsXVIIIPart IV The Composition and Classification of Crude Oilsand the Influence of Geological FactorsChapter I Composition of Crude Oils1.1 Petroleum Versus Source Rock Bitumen1.2 Analytical Procedures for Crude OilCharacterization1.3 Main Groups of Compounds in Crude Oils1.4 Principal Types of Hydrocarbons in Crude Oils . . .1.5 Sulfur Compounds1.6 Nitrogen Compounds1.7 Oxygen Compounds1.8 High Molecular Weight N, S , 0 Compounds: Resinsand Asphaltenes1.9 Organometallic Compounds1.10 Covariance Analysis of Main Crude Oil ConstituentsSummary and Conclusion403408411414Chapter 2 Classification of Crude Oils2.1 General2.2 Historical2.3 Basis of Proposed Classification of Crude Oils . . . .2.4 Classification of Crude Oils2.5 Characteristics of the Principal Classes of Crude Oils .2.6 Concluding RemarksSummary and 23.33.43.5Geochemical Fossils in Crude Oils andSediments as Indicators of DepositionalEnvironment and Geological HistorySignificance of Fossil MoleculesGeochemical Fossils as Indicators of GeologicalEnvironmentsGeochemical Fossils as Indicators of EarlyDiagenesisGeochemical Fossils as Indicators of ThermalMaturationPresent and Future Development in the Use ofGeochemical FossilsSummary and Conclusion375375375379382398401403) y.t' 424424426432433436437

ContentsXIXChapter 4 Geological Control of Petroleum Type . . . .4.1 General and Geochemical Regularities ofComposition.' .4.2 Geochemical Regularities Related to theEnvironment of Deposition4.3 Geochemical Regularities in Relation to ThermalEvolution4.4 Concluding Remarks on Crude Oil Regularities . . .Summary and Conclusion439450457457Chapters Petroleum Alteration5.1 Thermal Alteration5.2 Deasphalting5.3 Biodegradation and Water WashingSummary and Conclusion459460461463469Chapters Heavy Oils and Tar Sands6.1 Definitions6.2 Composition of Heavy Oils6.3 Specific Gravity and Viscosity6.4 Origin and Occurrence of Heavy Oils6.5 World Reserves and Geological Setting6.6 Valorization of Heavy OilsSummary and 440Part VOil and Gas Exploration: Application of thePrinciples of Petroleum Generation and MigrationChapter 1 Identification of Source Rocks1.1 Amount of Organic Matter1.2 Type of Organic Matter1.3 Maturationof the Organic Matter1.4 Conclusions on Characterization of Potential SourceRocksSummary and Conclusion495495497515Chapter! Oil and Source Rock Correlation2.1 Correlation Parameters2.2 Oil-Oil Correlation Examples2.3 Oil-Source Rock Correlation ExamplesSummary and Conclusion548549551561570540546

XXChaptersContentsLocating Petroleum Prospects: Applicationof Principle of Petroleum Generation andMigration - Geological Modeling3.1 Acquisition of the Geochemicallnformation3.2 First Conceptual Model of Petroleum Generation in aBasin3.3 Numerical Simulation of the Evolution of aSedimentary Basin-Geological ModelingSummary and ConclusionChapter 4 Geochemical Modeling: A QuantitativeApproach to the Evaluation of Oil and GasProspects4.1 Necessity of a Quantitative Approach to PetroleumPotential of Sedimentary Basins4.2 Mathematical Model of Kerogen Degradation andHydrocarbon Generation4.3 Genetic Potential of Source Rocks. TransformationRatio4.4 Validity of the Model4.5 Significance of the Activation Energies in Relation tothe Type of Qrganic Matter4.6 Application of the Mathematical Model to PetroleumExploration4.7 Reconstruction of the Ancient Geothermal Gradient4.8 Migration Modeling4.9 ConclusionSummary and ConclusionChapters Habitat of Petroleum5.1 Habitat of Petroleum in the Arabian CarbonatePlatform5.2 Habitatof Petroleum in Young Delta Areas5.3 The Linyi Basin in the People's Republic of China . .5.4 Habitatof Gas in the Deep Basin of Western Canada . Summary and Conclusionni-cinrniii Chapter 6 The Distribution of World Qil and GasReserves and Geological - GeochemicalImplications6.1 Introduction6.2 Geological Setting of Qil and Gas Reserves6.3 Age Distribution of Petroleum 607608610611615624628639641641642648

Contents6.4 Significance of the Age and Geotectonic Distributionof Petroleum and Coal6.5 Richness of Sedimentary Basins. Role of Giant Fieldsand Giant Provinces6.6 Ultimate World Oil and Gas Resources6.7 Paleogeography as a Clue to Future Oil and GasProvincesSummary and ConclusionXXIReferences to Part V667Subject Index679650656660662666