United Nations Treaties And Principles On Outer Space,

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ST/SPACE/61/Rev.1United NationsOFFICE FOR OUTER SPACE AFFAIRSUnited NationsTreaties and PrinciplesOn Outer Space,related General Assemblyresolutions and other documentsUnited NationsV.14-00496 (E)*1400496*

United Nations Treaties and Principles onOuter Space, related General Assemblyresolutions and other documents

ContentsPagePart one. United Nations treatiesA.Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use ofOuter Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return ofObjects Launched into Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8C.Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by Space Objects . . . . . . . . . .11D.Convention on Registration of Objects Launched into Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19E.Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies .23B.Part two. Principles adopted by the General AssemblyA.Declaration of Legal Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Explorationand Use of Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Principles Governing the Use by States of Artificial Earth Satellites for InternationalDirect Television Broadcasting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35C.Principles Relating to Remote Sensing of the Earth From Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38D.Principles Relevant to the Use of Nuclear Power Sources in Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . .42E.Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space forthe Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs ofDeveloping Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49B.Part three. Related resolutions adopted by the General AssemblyA.B.C.D.E.Resolution 1721 A and B (XVI) of 20 December 1961: International cooperation in thepeaceful uses of outer space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55Paragraph 4 of resolution 55/122 of 8 December 2000: International cooperation in thepeaceful uses of outer space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57Some aspects concerning the use of the geostationary orbit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57Resolution 59/115 of 10 December 2004: Application of the concept of the “launchingState” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60Resolution 62/101 of 17 December 2007: Recommendations on enhancing the practiceof States and international intergovernmental organizations in registering space objects62Resolution 68/74 of 11 December 2013: Recommendations on national legislationrelevant to the peaceful exploration and use of outer space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66Part four. Other documentsA.B.Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of OuterSpace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71Safety Framework for Nuclear Power Source Application in Outer Space . . . . . . . . . . . .75iii

Part oneUnited Nations treaties

A.Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in theExploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon andOther Celestial Bodies1The States Parties to this Treaty,Inspired by the great prospects opening up before mankind as a result of man’sentry into outer space,Recognizing the common interest of all mankind in the progress of theexploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes,Believing that the exploration and use of outer space should be carried on forthe benefit of all peoples irrespective of the degree of their economic or scientificdevelopment,Desiring to contribute to broad international cooperation in the scientific aswell as the legal aspects of the exploration and use of outer space for peacefulpurposes,Believing that such cooperation will contribute to the development of mutualunderstanding and to the strengthening of friendly relations between States andpeoples,Recalling resolution 1962 (XVIII), entitled “Declaration of Legal PrinciplesGoverning the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space”,which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on13 December 1963,Recalling resolution 1884 (XVIII), calling upon States to refrain from placingin orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds ofweapons of mass destruction or from installing such weapons on celestial bodies,which was adopted unanimously by the United Nations General Assembly on17 October 1963,Taking account of United Nations General Assembly resolution 110 (II) of3 November 1947, which condemned propaganda designed or likely to provoke orencourage any threat to the peace, breach of the peace or act of aggression, andconsidering that the aforementioned resolution is applicable to outer space,Convinced that a Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in theExploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other CelestialBodies, will further the purposes and principles of the Charter of the UnitedNations,Have agreed on the following:Article IThe exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and other celestialbodies, shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries,irrespective of their degree of economic or scientific development, and shall be theprovince of all mankind.1United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 610, No. 8843.3

Outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall be free forexploration and use by all States without discrimination of any kind, on a basis ofequality and in accordance with international law, and there shall be free access toall areas of celestial bodies.There shall be freedom of scientific investigation in outer space, including theMoon and other celestial bodies, and States shall facilitate and encourageinternational cooperation in such investigation.Article IIOuter space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject tonational appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or byany other means.Article IIIStates Parties to the Treaty shall carry on activities in the exploration and useof outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, in accordance withinternational law, including the Charter of the United Nations, in the interest ofmaintaining international peace and security and promoting internationalcooperation and understanding.Article IVStates Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth anyobjects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of massdestruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons inouter space in any other manner.The Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used by all States Parties to theTreaty exclusively for peaceful purposes. The establishment of military bases,installations and fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct ofmilitary manoeuvres on celestial bodies shall be forbidden. The use of militarypersonnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes shall not beprohibited. The use of any equipment or facility necessary for peaceful explorationof the Moon and other celestial bodies shall also not be prohibited.Article VStates Parties to the Treaty shall regard astronauts as envoys of mankind inouter space and shall render to them all possible assistance in the event of accident,distress, or emergency landing on the territory of another State Party or on the highseas. When astronauts make such a landing, they shall be safely and promptlyreturned to the State of registry of their space vehicle.In carrying on activities in outer space and on celestial bodies, the astronautsof one State Party shall render all possible assistance to the astronauts of otherStates Parties.States Parties to the Treaty shall immediately inform the other States Parties tothe Treaty or the Secretary-General of the United Nations of any phenomena theydiscover in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, which couldconstitute a danger to the life or health of astronauts.4

Article VIStates Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for nationalactivities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, whethersuch activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmentalentities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity withthe provisions set forth in the present Treaty. The activities of non-governmentalentities in outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, shall requireauthorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to theTreaty. When activities are carried on in outer space, including the Moon and othercelestial bodies, by an international organization, responsibility for compliance withthis Treaty shall be borne both by the international organization and by the StatesParties to the Treaty participating in such organization.Article VIIEach State Party to the Treaty that launches or procures the launching of anobject into outer space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, and eachState Party from whose territory or facility an object is launched, is internationallyliable for damage to another State Party to the Treaty or to its natural or juridicalpersons by such object or its component parts on the Earth, in air space or in outerspace, including the Moon and other celestial bodies.Article VIIIA State Party to the Treaty on whose registry an object launched into outerspace is carried shall retain jurisdiction and control over such object, and over anypersonnel thereof, while in outer space or on a celestial body. Ownership of objectslaunched into outer space, including objects landed or constructed on a celestialbody, and of their component parts, is not affected by their presence in outer spaceor on a celestial body or by their return to the Earth. Such objects or componentparts found beyond the limits of the State Party to the Treaty on whose registry theyare carried shall be returned to that State Party, which shall, upon request, furnishidentifying data prior to their return.Article IXIn the exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and othercelestial bodies, States Parties to the Treaty shall be guided by the principle ofcooperation and mutual assistance and shall conduct all their activities in outerspace, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, with due regard to thecorresponding interests of all other States Parties to the Treaty. States Parties to theTreaty shall pursue studies of outer space, including the Moon and other celestialbodies, and conduct exploration of them so as to avoid their harmful contaminationand also adverse changes in the environment of the Earth resulting from theintroduction of extraterrestrial matter and, where necessary, shall adopt appropriatemeasures for this purpose. If a State Party to the Treaty has reason to believe that anactivity or experiment planned by it or its nationals in outer space, including theMoon and other celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference withactivities of other States Parties in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space,including the Moon and other celestial bodies, it shall undertake appropriateinternational consultations before proceeding with any such activity or experiment.5

A State Party to the Treaty which has reason to believe that an activity orexperiment planned by another State Party in outer space, including the Moon andother celestial bodies, would cause potentially harmful interference with activities inthe peaceful exploration and use of outer space, including the Moon and othercelestial bodies, may request consultation concerning the activity or experiment.Article XIn order to promote international cooperation in the exploration and use ofouter space, including the Moon and other celestial bodies, in conformity with thepurposes of this Treaty, the States Parties to the Treaty shall consider on a basis ofequality any requests by other States Parties to the Treaty to be afforded anopportunity to observe the flight of space objects launched by those States.The nature of such an opportunity for observation and the conditions underwhich it could be afforded shall be determined by agreement between the Statesconcerned.Article XIIn order to promote international cooperation in the peaceful exploration anduse of outer space, States Parties to the Treaty conducting activities in outer space,including the Moon and other celestial bodies, agree to inform the SecretaryGeneral of the United Nations as well as the public and the international scientificcommunity, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of the nature, conduct,locations and results of such activities. On receiving the said information, theSecretary-General of the United Nations should be prepared to disseminate itimmediately and effectively.Article XIIAll stations, installations, equipment and space vehicles on the Moon andother celestial bodies shall be open to representatives of other States Parties to theTreaty on a basis of reciprocity. Such representatives shall give reasonable advancenotice of a projected visit, in order that appropriate consultations may be held andthat maximum precautions may be taken to a