Fire Service Featuresof Buildings and Fire Protection SystemsOSHA 3256-09R 2015
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970“To assure safe and healthful working conditions for working menand women; by authorizing enforcement of the standards developedunder the Act; by assisting and encouraging the States in theirefforts to assure safe and healthful working conditions; by providingfor research, information, education, and training in the fieldof occupational safety and health.”This publication provides a general overview of a particular standardsrelated topic. This publication does not alter or determine complianceresponsibilities which are set forth in OSHA standards and theOccupational Safety and Health Act. Moreover, because interpretationsand enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidanceon OSHA compliance requirements the reader should consult currentadministrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safetyand Health Review Commission and the courts.Material contained in this publication is in the public domain and maybe reproduced, fully or partially, without permission. Source credit isrequested but not required.This information will be made available to sensory-impaired individualsupon request. Voice phone: (202) 693-1999; teletypewriter (TTY) number:1-877-889-5627.This guidance document is not a standard or regulation, and it creates nonew legal obligations. It contains recommendations as well as descriptions ofmandatory safety and health standards. The recommendations are advisoryin nature, informational in content, and are intended to assist employers inproviding a safe and healthful workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Actrequires employers to comply with safety and health standards and regulationspromulgated by OSHA or by a state with an OSHA-approved state plan. Inaddition, the Act’s General Duty Clause, Section 5(a)(1), requires employers toprovide their employees with a workplace free from recognized hazards likely tocause death or serious physical harm.Cover photo: Vito Maggiolo
Fire Service Featuresof Buildings and Fire Protection SystemsOccupational Safety and Health AdministrationU.S. Department of LaborOSHA 3256-09R 2015
ACKNOWLEDGMENTSOSHA wishes to express its appreciation tothe following individuals for their significantcontributions to this manual.The following persons provided a courtesytechnical review:David M. Banwarth, P.E.David M. Banwarth Associates, LLCJames (Jamie) Barton, CFPSFire Inspector, Gaithersburg, MD Fire Marshal’s OfficeCaptain (retired), Montgomery County Fire & RescueService, MD.Jeffrey Cisney, Fire Protection EngineerGeneral Services AdministrationFormer firefighter, College Park Volunteer FireDepartment, MD.Ed Claridge, Beca Ltd. New ZealandSamuel S. Dannaway, P.E.President and Chief Fire Protection Engineer, S. S.Dannaway Associates, Inc.Former volunteer firefighter, Prince Georges County,MD.Robert J. DavidsonManaging Partner, Davidson Code Concepts, LLCFire Marshal (retired), South Brunswick, NJ.Sean DeCrane, Battalion ChiefDirector of TrainingCleveland Division of FireIAFF - ICC Codes RepresentativeJohn August Denhardt, P.E.Strickland Fire ProtectionGregory HavelDeputy Chief (retired) Town of Burlington FireDepartment, WI.Adjunct Instructor, Gateway Technical CollegeSafety Director, Scherrer Construction Co., Inc.;Burlington, WI.Ivan J. Humberson, P.E.Fire Marshal, City of Gaithersburg, MD.Former Volunteer Firefighter, Prince Georges andFrederick Counties, MD.Greg Jakubowski, P.E., CSP, FSFPEPrincipal - Fire Planning AssociatesPennsylvania State Fire InstructorChief, Lingohocken Fire Co., Bucks County, PA.Chris Jelenewicz, P.E.Society of Fire Protection EngineersFire Chief (retired) Chillum-Adelphi Volunteer FireDepartment, MD.Bruce E. JohnsonInternational Code CouncilSteve KerberDirector, UL Firefighter Safety Research InstitutePast Deputy Chief and Life Member, College ParkVolunteer Fire Department, MD.Thomas Platt, P.E.Fire Protection Engineer, U.S. GovernmentLieutenant, College Park Volunteer Fire Department,MD.Edward J. Prendergast, P.E.Chicago Fire Department (retired)Martin C. Smith, SETPresident and CEO, Alarm Tech Solutions, LLCJim TidwellTidwell Code ConsultingFire Chief (retired) Fort Worth Fire Department, TX.Steven Venditti, P.E.Associate Manager, Rolf Jensen and AssociatesFormer Lieutenant, College Park Volunteer FireDepartment, MD.The following persons and organizations contributedphotographs or diagrams for this manual:Alarm Tech Solutions, LLCDave BanwarthMike CarrollJeff CisneyClayton Fire Company #1, DECleveland Division of FireCollege Park Volunteer Fire Department, MDFederal Emergency Management AgencyGlen EllmanMike EversoleJohn GuytonInternational Code CouncilGreg HavelNeal HobbsIvan HumbersonMorgan HurleyGaithersburg City Fire Marshal, MDGreg JakubowskiVito Maggiolo (including cover photo)National Fire Protection AssociationNational Institute for Occupational Safety and HealthNational Institute of Standards and TechnologyOdessa Fire Company, DEDave Polikoff, Battalion Chief, Montgomery CountyFire and Rescue Service, MDDavid PurcellGene ShanerMichael SchwartzbergMartin C. SmithScott StookeyTempe Fire Department, AZUnited States Fire Administration
TABLE OF CONTENTSChapter 1 Introduction.1Purpose .1Scope .2Manual Organization and Use .3Terminology .4Glossary of Acronyms and Terms .4Chapter 2 Fire Service Primer.5Challenges .5Organization.6Apparatus.7Emergency Operations.8How Stakeholders Can Help.10Chapter 3 Fire Apparatus Access.13Extent and ity.17Traffic Calming Features.18Chapter 4 Water Supply.20Fire Flow.21Fire Pumps .22Fire Hydrant Features.23Fire Hydrant Placement.24Chapter 5 Premises Identification.29Chapter 6 Firefighter Access.32Site Access .32Key Boxes.32Entry Points .33Room and Floor Designations .34Interior Access .36Stairs .36Stair Capacity .37
Elevators.38Utility and Equipment Identification.40Chapter 7 Hazards to Firefighters.42Building Information .42Hazardous Materials .43Lightweight Construction .44Shaftways .46Rooftop Hazards .47Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Features .47Chapter 8 Sprinkler Systems.51Zoning .51Control Valves .52Partial Sprinkler Systems.55Unwanted Alarms.56Chapter 9 Standpipe Systems.58System Design .59Pressure-Regulating Devices .61Fire Hose Connections .62Fire Attack from Stairs.65Isolation Valves .67Chapter 10 Fire Department Connections.69Quantity .69Inlets .70Location .71Position .73Marking and Signage. 74Chapter 11 Fire Alarm and Communication Systems.77Zoning and Annunciation .