Wednesday, November 5, 2014 A Taste Of Appreciative

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16th Annual Leadership & Management Development ConferenceForward Thinking for Today's LeaderWednesday, November 5, 2014A Taste ofAppreciative InquiryDISCOVERWhat gives us life?The best of what is.InquireDELIVER / DESTINYHow do we empower/sustain the change?ImplementDREAMPositiveTopicWhat might be?Our ideal.InitiateImagineDESIGNWhat will be when weachieve our dream.InnovateDoing More ofWhat WorksFacilitators:Mary HoddyAcademic Staff [email protected] CordesUniversity Health [email protected]

1. What Is Appreciative Inquiry?AI is both a PROCESS and a way of THINKING.Appreciate Ap-pre’ci-ate, v., 1. valuing; the act ofrecognizing the best in people or the worldaround us; affirming past and present strengths,successes, and potentials; perceive things thatgive life (health, vitality, excellence) to livingsystems 2. increase in value, e.g. the economyhas appreciated. Synonyms: VALUING,PRIZING, ESTEEMING, and HONORING.InquiryIn-quire, (kwir), v., 1. the act of explorationand discovery. 2. To ask questions; to beopen to seeing new potentials andpossibilities. Synonyms: DISCOVER,SEARCH, and SYSTEMATICEXPLORATION, STUDY.Excerpt from A Positive Revolution in Change: Appreciative Inquiry by David L. Cooperrider & Diana Whitney.AI seeks to discover the root causes of success rather thanthe root causes of failure. Jim Taylor, Rolyat Corp LTDTake Aways: Practice the beginning of an Appreciative Inquiry process Analyze some of the assumptions as to WHY appreciative inquiry works Consider some practical ways to apply AI without knowing the whole modelAIProblemChoicePerceivedProblemJim Taylor, Rolyat LTD.To Begin: Choose the positive as the focus of inquiry Critical first Step Whatever you focus on grows1

Focus On What Works To Get StartedDiscoverWhat gives us life?InquireThe AI InterviewMost of us are working to make the world a better place – in our workplaces, our families,and our communities. By necessity, that requires change. Change at any level, can be bothstressful and incredibly energizing. When change is a planned, inclusive effort towards ashared goal it can inspire commitment and teamwork. The results may even exceed theoriginal vision.A. With your partner share a story about a time when you experienced working through a changewhich energized you and made you feel alive and excited about your involvement. It couldhave been a small change or a large-scale change that affected many other people. It could havebeen on the job, at an organization you volunteer with, or in your family. I t could have beenchange you initiated, or were just a participant in. Be descriptive in telling your story. What was the change? What did it look like? Sound like? How did you feel? Who were the other significant people involved in this experience? What did they do that contributed to this special time?B. Without being humble, what did you contribute to creating the successful change experience?Be specific.C. After 5 minutes we will switch roles and have the other person tell their story.Tips for the Interviewer You want the speaker to share the vivid details of the story. Be genuinely curious about theirexperiences, feeling and thoughts. Let the person tell their story. Do not tell yours or give opinions about the experience. Allow for silence. Sometimes we need time to think! It is okay to probe for further information. Some possible statements or questions are: Tell me more. What caused you to feel that way? How did it affect you? What do you think was really making it work? What was your contribution? Dig deep when listening. Search for values and those things that matter to the storyteller.2

DiscoverWhat gives us life?InquireD. After the second person finishes, share your response to this question:If the pair of you had up to three (3) wishes for your future experience with change, whatwould they be? Write your wishes below. We’ll get back to them in a few minutes.Our WishesAs a large group, how did this process feel?“Appreciative Inquiry (AI) involves making a very conscious and deliberate choice to ask only positivequestions when we seek to understand what is needed to make life better in organizations.”Jim Taylor, Rolyat Corp LTD.“The universe is made of stories, not of atoms.”Muriel Rukeyser, American poet and writer3

The Appreciative Inquiry ModelAIProblemChoicePerceivedProblemJim Taylor, Rolyat LTD.To Begin: Choose the positive as the focus of inquiry Critical first Step Whatever you focus on grows Discover: Inquire into stories that find strengths or what’s working; locatethemes that appear in the stories Dream: Select themes or topics for further inquiry Design: Create shared images of the future you want Deliver/Destiny: Find innovative ways to create that futureDISCOVERWhat gives us life?The best of what is.InquireDELIVER / DESTINYHow do EAMWhat might be? Ourideal.ImagineDESIGNWhat will be when weachieve our dream.InnovateSee “Job Aids & Additional Materials”, pages 8-9, for a summary of steps in AI process.Adapted by Mary Hoddy, Jay Ekleberry, and Tara Cordes, UW-Madison, from Appreciative Inquiry: Change at the Speed ofImagination. Jane Magruder Watkins and Bernard Mohr.4

Turn Wishes into ThemesDISCOVERWhat gives us life? Thebest of what is.InquireA. Put two pairs together to form small groups.Share the wishes you captured from your story-telling. What are you hearing as you share your wishes? What themes do you hear? What common ground does your table group have?Write the themes / common ground you hear in the box below for our next exercise.What is missing? Are there any themes you think should be included?Our ThemesB. As a large group, participate in our scattergram exercise.Note: In this exercise we are looking for the energy in the room, not consensus!ThemesDotsC. What do you notice? What surprises you? What does this say about our class?5

Underlying Assumptions of AIFrom the Thin book of Appreciative Inquiry, Sue Hammond1. In every setting and system something works! If you can picture what is not working, you can picture what could work Or you could dream what might work2. Organizations move towards the most positiveimage of themselves. (In science, called heliotropic.)3. The act of asking questions influences the setting / system in some way. What we focus on becomes our reality Reality is created in the moment and there are multiple realities The language we use creates our reality4. We have more confidence and comfort if wejourney forward with parts of our past. We should carry forward the parts ofour past that worked best5. All steps are collaborative. Every voice counts Every voice deserves to be heard Each individual has value and merit6. Outcomes should be useful. 7. Address the psychology of change Statistics have shown that 80% of change efforts fail Must effectively engage people in process People do not resist change as much as they resist being changedContinuityDecide what not tochange. Carry thebest forward andbuild on it.NoveltyUnexpected; trya new processto imaginesomething newTransitionPlan the change.Be open tocontinuousevaluation andimprovement.In the large group,which assumptions have you seen us use or talk about today? Be specific.6

Practical Ways to use AI (Without knowing the whole model)In your small groups, identify from your change stories and note in the box below: A few things that helped the process work What could have been better?What’s working? (or What worked?)(Continuity)What could have been better?(Transition – plan, evaluate, improve)To Do: (Novel idea or just plain “Do It”!)1.2.3.PersonMaryTaraJohnSee “Job Aids & Additional Materials”, page 12, for template.Other Ways to Use AI in my OrganizationIndividually,How else are you using, or could you use an AI approach in your workplace or in otherorganizations that you are involved with?Ways I might use AI in my workplace Conversation before performance reviews (see page 13) Coaching Strategic PlanningSee “Job Aids & Additional Materials”, pages 14-15, for more examples of applications of AI inthe workplace.Thank you for your active participation in this class!7

Job Aids and Additional MaterialsDescription of the 4 – D Appreciative Inquiry CycleAdapted by Mary Hoddy and Jay Ekleberry, Wisconsin Union, fromAI for Organization Change: A Workshop Resource Book, by Jane Magruder Watkins & Bernard MohrDISCOVERWhat gives life? Best ofwhat is. InquireDELIVER/DESTINYDREAMHow do weempower/sustain?ImplementWhat might be.ImagineDesignWhat will be. IdealInnovateChoose an Affirmative Topic:Before beginning an AI process, the organization must identify what theywant to learn about. The first question is fateful, as the organization will grow in the direction of inquiry. Theconsultant describes the AI process and agrees with the client on a process that is appropriate to this organization. Atypical process includes:1. Introduce AI to the client (Chair, CEO, Executive Team, etc.)2. Establish guidance and support structure within the organization (Training Department, ProfessionalDevelopment Committee, etc.)3. Create a customized interview guide for the inquiry process4. Create a plan for the interview process1. Discovery Phase – Appreciating the Best:In the Discovery phase, we collect stories that value the best of whatis and identify emerging themes from the interviews. A typical process includes:1.2.3.4.5.Pairs interview each other for 5 - 60 minutes each. Interviews include a story of something working at its bestand 3 wishes for the future.Two pairs join and identify key themes or threads from the interviews.Create a chart (for example on a flipchart) with all themes orthreads. Combine or rewrite themes as they emerge fromgroups.DotsThemesCreate a scattergram with each person placing 3 dots on the1.* *theme that they are drawn to or are most important to them.2.* * *The dots represent where the energy lays. Dialogue on what the3.group sees. e.g. “What surprises you?” or “What does it say4.*about our organization?” Keep all themes for future use.An alternative process includes:1. Identify core group of interviewers.2. Interviewers conduct individual interviews with all staff. If the group is large, initial interviewers can train asecond (or third) tier of interviewers who interview the remaining staff.3. Interviewers meet to identify themes or key ideas that emerge from the interviews.4. Create a scattergram of all themes.5. Create process so all participants can place 3 dots on the themes and reflect on what they see.8

Job Aids and Additional Materials2. Dream Phase – Envision possibilities: The dream phase challenges the status quo by envisioning a preferredfuture. Stake holders engage in possibility conversations about the organization’s potential, its calling and the uniquecontribution it can make. To define and articulate the dreams, a typical process includes both “right-brain” and “left-brain”activities, for example:1. Each small group selects one of the theme that they feel energy around2. Together they create a Graphic Representation of the preferred image. This can be as simple as a drawing withmarkers on flipchart paper, but it can also include colored paper, stickers, etc. The representation can also be askit or song that captures the dream.3. Groups then translate their image into language by creating a Provocative Proposition, which states in onesentence the essence of their dream in the present tense, as if it were already happening.4. Each group shares their Graphic Representation and Provocative Proposition with large group.Note: Macro Provocative Propositions apply to the organization as a whole. Micro Provocative Propositions applyto a discrete part or particular function of the organization.3. Design Phase – Create shared images of future: In the Design phase, we translate the Dream into language ofthe organization’s social architecture – all the formal and informal structure that sustains the essence of the organization.Using the images and provocative propositions as a guide, the group begins to align the organization with the dream. Twotypical approaches are:Individual Action Approach1. Each employee considers the part of the dream they want to bring to life.2. Individuals make simple commitments, offers, and/or requests.3. Individuals move their commitments to action.Whole System Design Approach uses traditional and non-traditional Organizational Development models, such as:1. Teams create a Goose Egg Framework to viewstakeholders/people and systems/processes related to eachProvocative Proposition.2. Individuals, teams, or departments can move to traditionalSystems and ProcessesOrganizational Development models to design.Stakeholders/PeopleProv. Proposition4. Delivery/Destiny Phase - Create the appropriate innovation:In the Delivery/Destiny Phase, theorganization fleshes out, experiments with, and redesigns the innovations that it identified during the Design phase.Employees continue to work to identify, highlight, and expand on what is working well.The main challenge that groups face during this stage is sustaining – and even magnifying – the inspirationthat characterizes the earlier phases. We come from a “project mentality” that values clear starts andconclusions. But we are increasingly confronted with a world in which change does not occur during aseparate time period, after which we get back to business as usual. Rather, change is now the very water inwhich we swim.Adapted from Jane Magruder Watkins and Bernard Mohr, Appreciative Inquiry: Change at the Speed of Imagination.9

Job Aids and Additional MaterialsDealing With The Negative(s)We are well trained to find the negative in things. We are "socially constructed" to see, identifyand attempt to solve the problems that exist in any human system. So what can we do when confrontedwith folks who just cannot seem to get past the ne