BUILDING MORE Resilient Communities

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Atlantic CouncilADRIENNE ARSHTCENTER FOR RESILIENCEBUILDING MOREResilientCommunitiesRESPONDING TOIRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWSBY AMY POPE

SECTIONAtlantic CouncilADRIENNEARSHTAtlanticCouncilCENTER FOR RESILIENCEADRIENNE ARSHTLATIN AMERICA CENTERThe Adrienne Arsht Center for Resiliencetackles the challenges we face byadvancing approaches that promote theabilities of nations, cities, communities,and individuals to respond effectivelyto disruptions, understand and managecomplex interdependent systems, andthrive in today’s unpredictable globalenvironment.The Atlantic Council promotesconstructive leadership and engagementin international affairs based on the centralrole of the Atlantic Community in meetingglobal challenges.For more information, please visitwww.AtlanticCouncil.org. 2017 The Atlantic Council of the UnitedStates. All rights reserved. No part ofthis publication may be reproduced ortransmitted in any form or by any meanswithout permission in writing from theAtlantic Council, except in the case of briefquotations in news articles, critical articles,or reviews. Please direct inquiries to:Atlantic Council1030 15th Street NW, 12th FloorWashington, DC 20005ISBN: 978-1-61977-418-6June 2017

BUILDING MOREResilientCommunitiesRESPONDING TOIRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWSBY AMY POPE

TABLE OF CONTENTSFOREWORD 01INTRODUCTION 02Consequences of a Failure to Act 03Defining a Resilient Response to Migration 05BUILDING A MORE RESILIENT IMMIGRATION RESPONSE 06Start at the Local Level—Identify Need and Build Trust 06CASE STUDY: Detroit 08Link the Local and the National—Horizontallyand Vertically 09Don’t Neglect the Nongovernmental and Private Sectors 10COMMON EFFORT: Migration and Immigration in Germany 11Enhance National Interagency Coordination 12Create and Enhance Regional and MultilateralCoordination to Address Migration 13CASE STUDY: Anchorage, Alaska 14Anticipate and Prepare for the Future—It Won’t Play OutExactly the Same Way as in the Past 17CONCLUSION 19ABOUT THE AUTHOR 20ENDNOTES 21IV BUILDING MORE RESILIENT COMMUNITIES RESPONDING TO IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWS

FOREWORDERIC GARCETTIMAYORCITY OF LOS ANGELESore than 100 years ago, mygreat-grandmother carried my infantgrandfather in her arms over theU.S.-Mexico border. An unexpected event — thedeath of her husband during the MexicanRevolution — led to an unexpected decision. Mygrandfather, Salvador, earned his U.S. citizenshipby volunteering to fight in World War II. Helearned a trade as a barber and built a future forhis family in Los Angeles. Today, turbulent timesare driving the same sort of unexpected decisions all around the world.Migration is on the rise today as refugees fleetheir home countries in numbers not seen sinceWorld War II. In recent years, waves of migrantshave brought economic, political, and socialchallenges to cities around the world, fromBarcelona to Berlin, and Toronto to Los Angeles.While significant numbers of unanticipatedmigrants can put a strain on a city’s resources,schools, housing, and infrastructure, cities alsocreate unparalleled opportunities for immigrantsto thrive by serving as diverse hubs for innovation and economic success. As cities work tointegrate newly arrived populations, it is important to consider how to mitigate that stress, sothat newcomers and host communities alike canflourish.In this paper, the Atlantic Council’s AdrienneArsht Center for Resilience explores successful policies and practices that cities can use tostrengthen the fabric of their communities andreap the economic, security, and cultural benefits of successfully integrating new immigrantpopulations through a collaborative approachMamong government, business, and civic leaders.In Los Angeles, more than a third of our residents are foreign-born, and nearly two-thirdsare either immigrants or the children of immigrants. The contributions of immigrants spancultural, economic and social dimensions. Ineconomic terms, immigrants contribute 232billion to the County’s GDP, or more than 36percent. Immigrant entrepreneurs generate 3.5billion annually and employ hundreds of thousands of people in Los Angeles County. Fromthe owners of the local grocery store to someof Hollywood’s biggest stars, immigrants defineand shape Los Angeles, and the United States.The recent spike in migration around the globehas led to difficult but important discussions atthe local, national, and international levels. Whatis the best way to integrate immigrants into anew city? What is best for the new arrivals, andwhat is best for the host community? How canwe make the answers to these questions work inharmony?Leadership in our cities requires thoughtful,humane, and effective answers to these critical questions—solutions we are attempting toachieve in Los Angeles, and ideas that this paperputs forth.If embraced, this paper’s recommendationscan help chart a successful course across theglobe, allowing future unexpected acts — muchlike my bisabuela’s bold decision to migratenorth a century ago — to yield brighter futuresfor families and stronger, more stable communities everywhere.BUILDING MORE RESILIENT COMMUNITIES RESPONDING TO IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWS1

INTRODUCTIONmmigration, refugees, displacedpersons: These issues are capturingheadlines and shaping politics aroundthe world. Recent waves of “irregular” migration—the movement of people that occursoutside the regulatory norms of the sending,transit, and receiving countries—have broughteconomic, political, and social challenges theworld over, contributing to highly publicizedupheavals across much of Europe and NorthAmerica, as well as in other regions of theworld.1 While the movement of people is as oldas human history, irregular migration today isunprecedented. The number of refugees andinternally displaced persons has reached a levelnot witnessed since World War II. At the end of2015, more than 65 million people were displaced worldwide, more than half of themchildren2—a number that does not include themany millions more who moved for purelyeconomic or other reasons.Irregular migration—particularly whenthere are large movements of people—can behighly disruptive, especially at the local level.Schools, hospitals, and social services arestrained. Native residents may clash with theforeign-born over culture, religion, or access tojobs, breeding resentment and in some cases,leading to violent confrontations.Unquestionably, a negative reaction to immigration influenced the British decision to leaveIthe European Union, and continues to threatenthe long-term stability of the European Union.It was a foundational component of DonaldTrump’s surprise victory in the U.S. presidentialelection, Marine Le Pen’s success in the Frenchprimary elections, and the support for nationalist candidates in places like the Netherlands. Butbehind the very public stresses caused by immigration, many communities ultimately flourishin the long run because of the skills, culturaldiversity, and demographics introduced by thenewcomers.Understanding how to maximize the benefitsof migrants to a community while reboundingfrom the disruption caused by the migration isat the heart of the work of the Adrienne ArshtCenter for Resilience initiative on migration.3This report examines how communities—citiesand regions—and entire societies can betterprepare for irregular migration through strategies rooted in resilience—meaning the ability tomeet disruption, restore stability, and emergestronger.4 This report goes beyond the nearterm challenge of integrating migrants into acommunity, and considers how migrants canhelp local communities face twenty-first-century problems, such as aging populations, adwindling tax base, insufficient diversity in thelabor market, and concerns about public safety.The recommendations in this paperfocus primarily on advanced and emerging2 BUILDING MORE RESILIENT COMMUNITIES RESPONDING TO IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWS

INTRODUCTIONJOHN BLOWER/FLICKRTensions arising from immigration have fed nationalist sentiment and impactedthe political debate, including the historic Brexit vote in May 2016.countries—those with relatively stable economies and functioning government institutions.5While recognizing that a resilient responseshould be comprehensive and include preventive measures that can be taken before amigration crisis even begins, these recommendations focus on the impact of migration onthe host communities. They look for ways toconnect national and international policies tolocal communities, where the impact will bemost felt—and look at best practices to improveresilience at the local level, between local andfederal officials, with the private sector, andwith the international community.6 They areinformed by a roundtable discussion thatincluded a broad cross-section of participantsrepresenting local, state, and federal governments, law enforcement, the private sector,academia, and think-tanks.CONSEQUENCES OF A FAILURE TO ACTWhy should communities and governmentstake action to build a resilient immigration system—particularly when they are notin the middle of a migration crisis? Certainly,without the urgency of a migration crisis, publicofficials are often reluctant to take on such ahighly politicized and potentially divisive issue.But, as past examples have demonstratedrepeatedly, migration—when handled poorly orignored until it’s a crisis—can seriously undermine long-term community resilience andcrowd out space for thoughtful decision-making, leaving officials to make wholly political,rather than sensible choices. The failure totake any measures in advance, to identify andaddress community concerns, or to enhancecoordination among the various stakeholderscan undermine trust in governments, strainBUILDING MORE RESILIENT COMMUNITIES RESPONDING TO IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWS3

INTRODUCTIONinfrastructure, and foment civil unrest—breedingresentment between communities, ultimatelyfueling nationalist politics and extremist sentiment and actions—even when migrants are notentering in unprecedented numbers.7Likewise, relatively small numbers ofmigrants—who would otherwise be distributedand absorbed across a country with minimal oreven beneficial impact—can overwhelm localcapacity when their arrival is concentrated injust a handful of communities. The pressureson schools, hospitals, shelters, and other publicamenities can be cumulative and the longterm consequences—particularly the popularperception that migration is a “problem”—canbe difficult to reverse. The influx of Syrianrefugees in Europe underscored how vital thecooperation of the entire European Union wasto managing the significant influx of migrants.8But adopting sensible policies to evenly distribute the burdens and opportunities offeredby resettlement can be a difficult politicalsell. Without having the time needed to buildconsensus around migration, communities canbecome hostile and lash out at political partiesthat are making deals on behalf of migrants.Bureaucratic processes can also be too cumbersome to respond creatively and agilely to asituation that is rapidly deteriorating.As a consequence, anti-immigrant rhetoricbuilds on itself, significantly increasing thepolitical pressures on policy-makers to makehasty, and often poor, decisions for the longterm, frustrating native-born residents, andisolating and alienating migrants. Anecdotally,increasingly anti-immigrant rhetoric here in4 BUILDING MORE RESILIENT COMMUNITIES RESPONDING TO IRREGULAR MIGRATION FLOWSMOHAMED AZAKIR/WORLD BANKWith ongoing violence in Syria, countries in the Middle East, Europe, the United States,and Canada have all seen an increase in refugees from the country.

INTRODUCTIONthe United States, for example, has led migrantcommunities to close in on themselves, makingthem less likely to engage in and integrate intoa community and less likely to trust governmentofficials, including law enforcement. The impactcan be to make communities less safe, less economically stable, and ultimately less resilient.9Likewise, it can rob communities of the opportunities to benefit from migration. Groups undersiege are less likely to contribute meaningfullyto the future development of the community asa whole. The result is that everyone loses.DEFINING A RESILIENTRESPONSE TO MIGRATIONWith well-managed, resilient migration, thevalue added by the newcomers strengthens the long-term economic, cultural, and socialprospects of the communities they join. Thereare many examples of cities plagued by urbanblight, an aging population, or insufficientnative labor skills that have been revitalized byimmigration. New York City, for example, sawsignificant population decline in the 1970s, leading to problems such as abandoned buildings,rising crime rates, and a decline in small businesses.10 New York City’s rebound was due inlarge part to the growth in the immigrant population. The population that left was ultimatelyreplaced largely by foreign-born residents. Thistrend has played out across the United States—documented in seventeenof the fifty U.S. cities withthe largest populationsin 1950, including SanFrancisco, Washington,D.C., Boston, Seattle,Kansas City, and Atlanta,as well as Philadelphia andMinneapolis–St. Paul.11Whether it is theVietnamese “boat people”fleeing to North Americaand Australia,12 refugees fleeing persecutionin World War II, or Mexican-Americans lookingfor better opportunities in the United States,immigrant impact on cities has led to positivenet benefits over the long term.13 In fact, noU.S. community has rebounded from a population decline without an increase in migration.Economic analysis attributes some of therevitalization to the fact that migrants are morelikely to start up main street businesses—grocery stores, restaurants, clothing stores, andother enterprises that are key to neighborhoodgrowth and vitality.14 In fact, 28 percent of mainstreet businesses are begun by immigrants,earning 13 billion in 2013 alone.15 These small,independent s