DISTRICT SURVEY REPORT OF MINOR MINERALS

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GOVERNMENT OF KERALADISTRICT SURVEY REPORTOF MINOR MINERALS(EXCEPT RIVER SAND)Prepared as perEnvironment Impact Assessment (EIA) Notification, 2006 issuedunder Environment (Protection) Act 1986byDEPARTMENT OF MINING AND GEOLOGYwww.dmg.kerala.gov.inNovember, 2016Thiruvananthapuram

Table of ContentsPage no.1Introduction . 32Drainage and Irrigation . 33Rainfall and climate. 64Geology . 65Geomorphology . 96Soil types . 107Land use . 118Groundwater scenario . 119Natural hazards . 1610 Mineral Resources . 1610.1Major minerals . 1610.2Minor Minerals . 1610.2.1Ordinary Earth. 1610.2.2Ordinary Clay (tile/brick clay) . 2110.2.3Ordinary Sand . 2310.2.4Laterite . 2410.2.5Granite Dimension Stone and Granite (building stone). 2611 Details of minor mineral concessions and revenue collection . 27List of FiguresFigure 1: Geology and mineral resources of Palakkad.Figure 2: Geomorphology of Palakkad.Figure 3: Land use of Palakkad.Figure 4: Geohydrology of Palakkad.Figure 5: Geotechnical and natural hazards map of Palakkad.List of TablesDistrict Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala State1

Table1: Details of revenue collection for the period 2013-’14, 2014-’15 and 2015-‘16Table 2a: Details of Quarrying Permits granted for Granite building stone in PalakkaddistrictTable 2b: Details of Quarrying Permits granted for Laterite building stone in PalakkaddistrictDistrict Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala State2

DISTRICT SURVEY REPORT OF MINOR MINERALSPALAKKAD DISTRICT(This report is to be submitted along with application for EnvironmentalClearance (EC) for mining of all minor minerals except river sand)1 IntroductionPalakkad (Palghat) is the land of Palmyrahs and Paddy fields. Palakkad is a major paddygrowing area of the State. It is often called as the ‘Gateway of Kerala’. There isconsiderable change in the land use and cropping pattern in the district for the last fiveyears. Due to low income from paddy and coconut, farmers are changing the croppingpattern to cash crops like sugarcane, vegetables and flower cultivation. Overdependence on groundwater for domestic, irrigation and industrial purposes in thedistrict has led to the lowering of water table and water scarcity especially along theeastern parts. In most of the areas especially in eastern part of the district decline ofwater levels necessitates deepening of existing dug wells and putting deep bore wellsthereby increasing cost of pumping and quality deterioration. Local enquiry revealedthat farmers have taken loan from the banks for putting bore wells and fitting pump setsfor irrigation purposes. The district receives on an average 2362 mm of rainfallannually. During 1998 the district recorded a good rainfall of 2407 mm andsubsequently the rainfall has been decreased considerably.2 Drainage and IrrigationThe district is drained mainly by two rivers, viz. Bharathapuzha and Bhavani Rivers.Of these Bhavani is east flowing and form a tributary of the Cauvery River.Bharathapuzha basin can be divided into 50 watersheds and 290 mini watersheds. Soilerosion is more in the upstream parts of the basin. Dendritic is the common drainagepattern. 75 % of the population is depending on surface water resources for theirirrigation needs, mainly from Bharathapuzha, its tributaries and other water bodies.There are 12 reservoirs in the district associated with two major rivers and its adavu,Chulliyar,Pothundi,Moolathara, Meenkara, Walayar, Malampuzha, Gayathri, Kanjirapuzha andMankulam.District Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala State3

There are number of irrigation projects major and minor, existing in the district. Themajor projects are Malampuzha, Chittoorpuzha, Kuriar Kutty, Karapara, Kanjirapuzhaand Attappady Valley Irrigation Project.The major irrigation schemes are irrigating about 90,000 hectare of land and minorschemes irrigating about 2000 hectares of land. The main crops grown under theirrigation scheme are paddy, coconut, aracanut, plantain, grams, vegetables etc.District Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala State4

The Shiruvani dam constructed across the river Shiruvani, a tributary of Bhavani is thesource of drinking water for the Coimbatore urban population.District Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala State5

3 Rainfall and climateBased on Thornthwaite’s climatic classifications the district experiences humid type ofclimate.The district receives maximum rainfall during the south west monsoon followed by thenorth east monsoon. The other months receive considerably less rainfall. Thetemperature is pleasant from December to February. The annual rainfall varies from1883 to 3267 mm based on long term normal .The district receives on an average 2362mm of rainfall annually. Major rainfall is received during June to September in thesouthwest monsoon (71%). The northeast monsoon contributes about 18%. The westernpart of the district around Pattambi receives the maximum rainfall whereas in the rainshadow area of Chittur in the eastern part receives the minimum rainfall.At Palakkad the maximum temperature ranges from 28.1 to 37.40C whereas theminimum temperature ranges from 22.2 to 25.30C. The average annual maximumtemperature is 32.30C and the average annual minimum temperature is 23.40. The windis predominantly from west and east during morning as well as in the evening hours.The wind speed is high during August (13.6 kmph). The humidity is higher during themonsoon period i.e. from June to September. It is around 90% during this period. Allthrough the year, the humidity is high during the morning hours.4 GeologyThe district can be broad divided into five geological terranes viz. i) lowland ofcharnockite country in the west; (ii) Migmatite Complex in the east, extending intoadjacent Coimbatore district of Chennai; (iii) Khondalite Group, occurring as linearbodies in the northeastern hill region; (iv) Wynad Group, occurring as high hills in thenorth inAttapady area and (v) Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) confined to the northof Bharathapuzha river.The area forms a part of the Precambrian metamorphic shield having a complexgeological set up. Wynad Group is represented by rocks of upper amphibolites to lowergranulie facies metamorphism. This complex can be divided into an ultramaficdominant upper group and amphibolites dominant lower group. The ultramafic groupcomprises talc-chlorite schist, talc-pyroxene-garnet schist. The amphibolite groupconsists of hornblende-biotite schist and gneiss with amphibolites bands garnet. Theserocks are exposed in the Attappadi area. Hornblende –biotite gneiss and pink granitegneiss of Peninsular Gneissic Complex are exposed in the north, especially north ofDistrict Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala State6

Bharathapuzha river. The Khondalite group, which outcrops northeast of Malalbuzhareservoir, comprises garnet-sillimanite gneiss and calc-granulite. Narrow bands of calcgranulite are exposed along the Walayar river bed. Numerous thin bands of calcgranulite associated with crystalline limestone and calciphyre have been observed inthe area. Charnockite group is predominant in the west. This group comprises massivecharnockite/gneissic charnockite, pyroxene granulite, pyroxenite and norite andmagnetite quartzite amongst which massive charnockite/gneissic charnockite is themost widely distributed. Pyroxene granulite and magnetite quartzite occur as narrowbands. Thin impersistent segregations of pyroxenite and norite occur in the ‘PalghatGap’. The Charnockite Group is succeeded by the Migmatite Complex represented byhornblende-biotite gneiss and quartz-feldspar gneiss. These rocks occupy the easternpart and the ‘Palghat Gap’. They are melanocratic and foliated. These rocks are intrudedby pegmatites, quartz veins and gabbro and dolerite dykes. Basic intrusives, especiallydolerite, have two distinct trends in the district; one being NW-SE, which is commonthroughout the State and the other NE-SW, seen in the northeastnorth of Attapady. Inthe westernmost part, south of Bharathapuzha, a few isolated occurrences of Warkallisediments are noticed capping small mounds. The valleys are occupied by fluvialalluvium of Quaternary age. Lateritisation is widespread in the west (Figure 1). Thegeology of the district given above may be read with the “Geology of Kerala” which isgiven as Annexure 1 for better understanding of geological succession and stratigraphicsequence.District Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala State7

Figure 1: Geology and mineral resources of Palakkad. (Source: District Resource map, Palakkad district, Geological Survey of India)District Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala State8

5 GeomorphologyPhysiographically the district is divisible into two zones viz. (i) the high hill ranges of theWestern Ghats in the east and (ii) the low lying undulating midland region in the westi.e., the high land and mid land. A conspicuous landmark of the district is the ‘PalghatGap’ which is a major E-W trending break, across the NNW-SSE running hill ranges ofthe Western Ghats. The ‘Gap’ having an elevation of 70-300m above msl is part of awell-defined low-level landform of the Western Ghats. The ‘Gap’ is bound by steeplyrising Nilgiri hills in the north and Anamalai-Palani hills in the south. The width of‘Palghat Gap’ is about 30km. The midland region of the district, of which the ‘PalghatGap’ is also a part, represents an area of low undulating relief, with convex gently gradedinterstream tracts, sloping down to broad valley floors consisting of local erosionalremnants. Thee erosional landforms are often seen interfingered with alluvial plains andlateritic hummocks, and the terrain as a whole represents a dissected pediment. Thestructural cum denudational hill ranges border the dissected pediment to its north andsouth. Towards west, the landform is more matured with laterite mesas and lateriteinterfluves separated by narrow valley flats and flood plains. Almost levelled and maturedtopography around 1200m above msl in the north probably represents a planation surface.The elevation of the landforms varies from 20 to 2386 m amsl.Bharathapuzha is the major river draining the district. Gayathripuzha and Kunthi puzhaare the important tributaries of the Bharathapuzha. The Attapady area is drained byBhavani river, which unlike other rivers o Kerala is one among those three rivers thatflows towards east. The district is not blessed with coastal tract and natural lakes.Ottapalam taluk lies completely in the mid land region whereas all other taluks lie bothin midland and high land regions.Morphology of the terrain has played an important role in the potential of groundwaterin the district. In the ‘Palghat Gap’ and in the plains further west, groundwater is availableat shallow depths through open dug wells. But the hilly terrain on either side of the ‘Gap’is generally unsuitable for groundwater development. The amount of rainfall received inthe district is also less compared to other districts of the State because of which scarcityof water is very common and in some parts even drought conditions prevail during thesummer months (Figure 2).District Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala State9

6 Soil typesThere are four types of soil - Laterite soil, Virgin forest soil, Black cotton soil & Alluvialsoil.Laterite soil - Seen in major part of Ottappalam, Alathur, Chittur and Palakkad taluks.These are most predominant soil type in the midland and gap areas. Laterites on ict Survey Report, Palakkad District, Kerala Statelying10areas.

Virgin Forest Soil - Seen in Mannarkad taluk and in forest areas. They are rich in humusand organic matter.Black Cotton Soil - Seen in Chittur and Attapady Valley of the Mannarkad Taluk, whichis used for the cultivation of cotton. They exhibit mud cracks and have high waterretaining power.Alluvial soils are found along the banks of Bharathapuzha and its tributaries. In theValley portion Valley fill deposits composed of talus and scree