Knowledge Management Operations July 2012

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FM 6-01.1Knowledge Management OperationsJuly 2012DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.Headquarters, Department of the Army

This publication is available at Army Knowledge .html).

*FM 6-01.1HeadquartersDepartment of the ArmyWashington, DC, 16 July 2012Field ManualNo. 6-01.1Knowledge Management OperationsContentsPagePREFACE.iiiINTRODUCTION .ivChapter 1NATURE AND ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT . 1-1Knowledge Management Foundations . 1-1Mission Command, Knowledge Management, and Information Management . 1-7Knowledge Strategies. 1-11Knowledge Management and Learning in Organizations . 1-12Knowledge Management in Army Force Generation . 1-13Chapter 2KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SECTION . 2-1Section Functions . 2-1Section Member Duties and Responsibilities . 2-2Section Training . 2-5Supporting Partners. 2-6Chapter 3KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT PROCESS . 3-1Assess . 3-1Design. 3-5Develop. 3-10Pilot . 3-10Implement . 3-11Appendix ACONTENT MANAGEMENT . A-1Appendix BAFTER ACTION REVIEWS . B-1Appendix CINTERVIEWING TECHNIQUES . C-1Appendix DKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT ANNEX FORMAT . D-1Appendix EFACILITATING A PROFESSIONAL FORUM . E-1GLOSSARY . Glossary-1REFERENCES . References-1INDEX . Index-1DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.*This publication supersedes FM 6-01.1, dated 29 August 2008.i

ContentsFiguresFigure 1-1. How knowledge management enhances decisionmaking . 1-9Figure 1-2. Creating shared understanding . 1-11Figure 1-3. Continuum of knowledge strategies . 1-12Figure 3-1. Knowledge management process . 3-1Figure 3-2. Sample knowledge management working group agenda . 3-4Figure D-1. Knowledge management annex Q format . D-1TablesTable 1-1. Example of data processed into information and knowledge . 1-10Table 2-1. Knowledge management section functions . 2-2Table 2-2. Knowledge management officer responsibilities . 2-3Table 2-3. Assistant knowledge management officer responsibilities . 2-4Table 2-4. Knowledge management noncommissioned officer duties . 2-4Table 2-5. Content management specialist duties. 2-5Table 3-1. Battle rhythm considerations . 3-3Table 3-2. Characteristics of Army professional forums . 3-8Table 3-3. Virtual right-seat ride techniques . 3-15Table A-1. Content management design and development tasks . A-2Table A-2. Content management techniques for individuals . A-5Table A-3. Content management techniques for teams . A-5Table A-4. Content management techniques for organizations . A-5Table C-1. Example interview questions. C-1Table C-2. Things to avoid when interviewing . C-2Table C-3. Tips for a successful interview . C-2Table E-1. Daily tasks . E-3Table E-2. Weekly tasks . E-4Table E-3. Monthly tasks. E-4Table E-4. Quarterly tasks . E-4Table E-5. Performance metrics . E-5iiFM 6-01.116 July 2012

PrefacePURPOSEThis manual provides doctrinal knowledge management (KM) guidance. It provides doctrine for theorganization and operations of the KM section, and establishes the doctrinal principles, tactics, techniques, andprocedures necessary to effectively integrate KM into the operations of brigades and higher.SCOPEFM 6-01.1 has an introduction, three chapters, and Appendixes A through E. The introduction expands on themanual’s purpose and summarizes the doctrine it contains. Chapter 1 explains the nature and role of knowledgemanagement. Chapter 2 discusses the organization and functions of the KM section, including Soldier dutiesand responsibilities. Chapter 3 discusses the five-step KM process. Appendix A contains checklists for contentmanagement. Appendix B contains techniques for adapting after action reviews during training to facilitatelearning during operations. Appendix C includes interviewing techniques for collecting observations, insights,and lessons from operations. Appendix D provides a standardized format for the KM Annex to operation plansor orders (OPLAN/OPORD). Appendix E provides an overview of facilitating a professional forum.APPLICABILITYFM 6-01.1 applies to KM activities in Army headquarters from brigade through Army service componentcommand. (“Brigade” includes brigade combat teams, support brigades, functional brigades, andmultifunctional brigades.) It applies to the KM section as well as to commanders, staffs, and Army leaders whowill have a role in improving KM effectiveness or implementing KM procedures in their organizations.FM 6-01.1 applies to the Active Army, Army National Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, andU.S. Army Reserve unless otherwise stated.The Army currently leads the effort to develop doctrine for KM; thus Army headquarters serving as theheadquarters of a joint force land component command or joint task force may adapt this field manual withappropriate modifications until joint doctrine or guidance is provided.ADMINISTRATIVE INSTRUCTIONSFM 6-01.1 uses joint terms where applicable. Most terms with joint or Army terms are defined in both theglossary and the text. Glossary references: Terms for which FM 6-01.1 is the proponent publication (theauthority) have an asterisk in the glossary. Text references: Definitions for which FM 6-01.1 is the proponentpublication are in boldfaced text. These terms and their definitions will be in the next revision of FM 1-02,Operational Terms and Graphics. For other definitions in the text, the term is italicized and the number of theproponent publication follows the definition.Headquarters, U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command, is the proponent for this publication. The preparingagencies are the Combined Arms Doctrine Directorate and the Army Operational Knowledge ManagementProponent, both subordinate to the U.S. Army Combined Arms Center. Send written comments andrecommendations on DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms) toCommander, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth, ATTN: ATZL-MCK-D, 300McPherson Avenue, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2337; by e-mail to mil; or submit an electronic DA Form 2028.16 July 2012FM 6-01.1iii

IntroductionThe Army embraced knowledge management (KM) as a discipline in 2003. How the Army managesinformation and facilitates the movement of knowledge has changed dramatically in recent years. This includesthe growth of KM within the Army and refinement of associated technology—both hardware and software.Recognizing that the ability to efficiently manage knowledge is essential to effective mission command, theArmy authorized the Army Knowledge Management Qualification Course (AKMQ-C), with additional skillidentifier (ASI) to prepare Soldiers for KM’s complex challenges. KM sections at brigade through theater armyheadquarters now work with commanders and staffs to help manage knowledge within their organizations;bridging the art of command and the science of control through KM.KM can be summarized in the phrase “Know, Show, Grow!” Know tacit “head knowledge”; Show knowledge that is written down and documented (explicit knowledge) to be shared with others; Grow collaboration toward innovation which sparks new knowledge.What individuals and small elements know that could help others cannot be widely shared without the means toshare it. The sheer volume of available information makes it difficult to identify and use that which is relevant.Knowledge management provides the means to efficiently share knowledge, thus enabling shared understandingand learning within organizations. To do this, KM creates, organizes, applies, and transfers knowledge andinformation between authorized people. It seeks to align people, processes, and tools—to include informationtechnology—within the organization to continuously capture, maintain, and re-use key information and lessonslearned to help units learn and adapt and improve mission performance. KM enhances an organization’s abilityto detect and remove obstacles to knowledge flow, thereby fostering mission success. Because collaboration isthe key contributor to KM, it is imperative that everyone be involved in the process, from the generating forcethat trains and sustains the Soldier to the operating force, which ensures Soldiers survive and thrive every day inevery circumstance or location.The contributions of everyone are important because anyone may be the source of an idea that may become thecatalyst for a solution that accomplishes missions and saves lives. Though the focus of this document isoperations, KM can be used by organizations and individuals to accomplish many tasks.This manual and its successors are intended to provide the guidance on how to use KM successfully to benefitSoldiers at the tip of the spear as well as commanders and staff, in present and future operational environments,in an era of persistent conflict.ivFM 6-01.116 July 2012

Chapter 1Nature and Role of Knowledge ManagementThis chapter begins with a discussion of the foundations of knowledge management.Then it explains the relationships between mission command, knowledgemanagement, and information management. Next, it discusses strategies forsupplying knowledge according to an organization’s needs. It explains howknowledge management supports learning in organizations. Finally, it discussesknowledge management in relation to Army force generation.KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT FOUNDATIONS1-1. Knowledge management (KM) is the process of enabling knowledge flow to enhance sharedunderstanding, learning, and decisionmaking. Knowledge flow refers to the ease of movement ofknowledge within and among organizations. Knowledge must flow to be useful. The purpose of knowledgemanagement is to create shared understanding through the alignment of people, processes, and tools withinthe organizational structure and culture in order to increase collaboration and interaction between leadersand subordinates. This results in better decisions and enables improved flexibility, adaptability, integration,and synchronization to achieve a position of relative advantage. Sound KM practices enhance— Collaboration among personnel at different places. Rapid knowledge transfer between units and individuals. Reach-back capability to Ar