Speed Management Action Plan

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Speed Management Action PlanPennsylvania Department of TransportationFinal11/2/2016

Table of ContentsChapter 1: Introduction . 1Problem Identification . 1Chapter 2: Approach . 4Literature Review . 4Data Analysis . 4Defining Speeding-Related Crashes . 5Defining Roadway Departure Crashes . 5Defining Intersection Crashes . 5Defining Pedestrian and Bicycle crashes. 6SHSP Steering Committee Meeting . 6Chapter 3: Integrating Speed Management within Focus Areas . 6Existing Overall Speed Management Strategies . 8Speeding-related Roadway Departure Crashes . 8Countermeasures for Reducing Speeding-related Roadway Departure Crashes . 11Speeding-related Intersection Crashes . 13Countermeasures for Speeding-related Intersection Crashes. 15Speeding-related Pedestrians/Bicyclists Crashes . 16Countermeasures for Speeding-related Pedestrian and Bicycle Crashes . 17Chapter 4: Key Themes and Strategies . 20Enhancing Speeding-related Data Collection. 20Setting Appropriate Speed Limits . 20Recommended Strategies . 21Systemic Approach To Proactively Addressing Speeding Related Crashes . 22Programmatic Strategies to Prevent the Opportunity of Speeding to Occur . 22Recommended Strategies . 22Cumulative Strategies and Countermeasures . 23Chapter 5: Conclusion and Next Steps . 31Summary . 31Future Research Needs . 31Partners for Success . 31Appendix A – Speed Management Countermeasures List . Error! Bookmark not defined.Appendix B – Data Analysis Summary . 33Overall . 39Intersections . 45Pedestrians/Bicyclists . 491

Appendix C – SHSP Steering Committee Meeting Agenda and Attendee List . 532

List of FiguresFigure 1 PennDOT speeding-related actual crashes and reduction goals (Source: FFY 2016 PennsylvaniaHighway Safety Plan) . 2Figure 2 Pennsylvania's Total and Speeding-related FSI crashes (2010 to 2014) . 7Figure 3 Pennsylvania's speeding-related FSI crashes by focus area. 7List of TablesTable 1. Speed Management Strategies; Associated Impact Area; and Relative Implementation Time,Cost, and Impact. . 25Table 2. Speed Management Countermeasures; Associated Impact Area; Relative Cost, and CrashModification Factor (CMF) . 303

Chapter 1: IntroductionMotor vehicle crashes are responsible for more fatalities between the ages of 5 and 24 than any othercause of death and remains one of the leading killers among all age groups in the United States. 1 From2010 to 2014, Pennsylvania averaged 1,265 highway fatalities and 3,340 serious injuries annually.Pennsylvania has over 43,000 miles on the State-maintained roadway system and 77,000 miles oflocally-owned roadways. Due to its intermediary location between major metropolitan areas on the eastcoast and the Midwest, Pennsylvania’s roadways carry a large amount of commercial truck traffic,ranging between 30 to 50 percent on certain interstate highways. Pennsylvania also has a significantamount of rural roadways, which exhibit fatality rates that are twice those on urban roadways.Problem IdentificationAggressive driving caused 12 percent of all fatalities and 8 percent of all serious injuries in Pennsylvaniabetween 2010 to 2014, and of all those fatal and serious injury (FSI) crashes, 34 percent are directly dueto speeding-related factors. In Pennsylvania, a crash can be attributed to aggressive driving when onevehicle involved has committed one of the following actions: Making an illegal U-TurnSudden slowing or stoppingMaking improper or careless turnsTurning from the wrong laneCareless passing or lane changeProceeding without clearance after stopPassing in no passing zoneRunning a stop signRunning a red lightFailure to respond to TCDTailgatingMaking improper entrance to highwaySpeedingDriving too fast for conditionsMaking improper exit from highwayDriver fleeing police (police chase)According to the National Highway Transportation Safety Board’s (NHTSA) 2014 fatality data,Pennsylvania has the third highest percentage of speeding-related traffic fatalities in the nation at 43percent, significantly higher than the national average of 28 percent. In addition, the State ranked third1Pennsylvania Strategic Highway Safety Plan, 2012.1

in the Nation that same year for having the highest speeding-related fatalities in 2014 with 509 deaths. 2These statistics reveal the severity of speeding issues in Pennsylvania.In Pennsylvania’s 2012 Strategic Highway Safety Plan (SHSP), the State identified reducing speeding andaggressive driving as one of the “Vital Seven” safety focus areas with a long-term focus area goal ofreaching 50 percent fatality reduction by 2030 and developed strategies to address the issue. Many ofthe strategies incorporate engineering, enforcement, and education to meet the State’s goal of reducingspeeding-related crashes.Between 2010 and 2014, speeding-related crashes have steadily decreased from 702 (2006-2010average) and reached 589 (2010-2014 average). Figure 1 displays Pennsylvania’s trend of reduction inspeeding-related crashes for the same period of time. Pennsylvania experienced 1,195 overall fatalitiesin 2014 which is the lowest ever in Pennsylvania motor vehicle crashes since 1928. With significantoverall fatality reductions since the finalization of SHSP, the State should maintain its focus on speedingrelated crashes for accomplishing the SHSP long-term goal by 2030.Figure 1 PennDOT speeding-related actual crashes and reduction goals (Source: FFY 2016 Pennsylvania Highway Safety Plan)FHWA has identified roadway departure (RwD), intersection, and pedestrian/bicycle crashes as thethree safety focus areas with the greatest potential for reducing fatalities. Speeding-related crashesoccur in all three of these focus areas, and many of the countermeasures applicable to crashes withinthese focus areas also apply to speeding-related crashes. With speeding as a crosscutting issue, FHWA2Traffic Safety Facts, NHTSA, 2013. Available wPublication/8121622

encourages agencies to take a broad look at speeding-related policies, safety plans, and programs andidentify opportunities for integrating speed management throughout.This concept of integrating speed management within the three focus areas of roadway departure,intersection, and pedestrian and bicyclist, as well as within agency’s existing policies, plans andprograms is the foundation for Pennsylvania’s Speed Management Action Plan. Below is the generaloutline of this plan:Chapter 2 describes the approach to develop the plan, identifies key data analysis and literaturereview findings, and describes the SHSP Steering Committee Meeting where speed managementstrategies were discussed.Chapter 3 presents speed management strategies and countermeasures that could beintegrated into Pennsylvania’s roadway departure, intersection, and pedestrian, and bicyclistplans.Chapter 4 lists broader themes relating to speed management in Pennsylvania and potentialstrategies to address them.Chapter 5 highlights the next steps, including considerations for future research needs relatingto speed management and potential partners for success.Reducing fatalities and severe injuries on the transportation system is directly impacted by an agency’sefforts to manage roadway speeds and to implement effective speed management strategies. Thisspeed management plan will assist Pennsylvania in reaching its safety goals.3

Chapter 2: ApproachThis plan was developed based on a three-pronged approach that included 1) a review of relevantPennsylvania transportation literature, 2) data analysis to identify factors and trends that contribute tospeeding-related crashes, and 3) results from a SHSP Steering Committee meeting where Pennsylvania’ssafety stakeholders gathered to discuss speed management, roadway departure, intersection andpedestrian/bicycle strategies.Literature ReviewA literature review of PennDOT’s current state of practice, speeding-related policies and guidance, othersafety plans, and countermeasure the DOT would consider using indicated how Pennsylvania isintegrating speed management currently. Areas of improvement identified while reviewing thesedocuments helped shape the recommendations and strategies presented in this plan.The review covers the following resources: Federal Fiscal Year 2016 Pennsylvania Highway Safety Plan (NHTSA, 2016) Pennsylvania Crash Facts and Statistics (PennDOT, 2014) PennDOT Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan (PennDOT, 2007) Pennsylvania Strategic Highway Safety Plan (PennDOT, 2012) Pennsylvania Intersection Safety Implementation Plan (FHWA Office of Safety, 2010) Pennsylvania Roadway Departure Safety Implementation Plan (FHWA Office of Safety, 2010) Pennsylvania Traffic Calming Handbook (PennDOT, July 2012) PennDOT Traffic Engineering Manual (Pub. 46, March 2014) Official Traffic Control Devices - PennDOT’s supplement to FHWA’s MUTCD (Pub 212, 3-06) Drive Safe PA Brochure– Pennsylvania’s Guide to Safe Driving (Pub 670, 3-09) The Pennsylvania Code on Speed Limits – 67 Pa. Code § 212.108, 75 Pa. Code § 3361&3368 (46Pa.B. 2944, June 4, 2016)PennDOT completed a Speed Management Countermeasures List by indicating the likelihood of usingspecific countermeasures to address speed-related focus area crashes. These countermeasures wereused to help determine the strategies within this plan. The completed list is found in Appendix A.Data AnalysisAn analysis of Pennsylvania State crash data revealed the characteristics of speeding-related crasheswithin roadway departure, intersection, and pedestrian and bicyclist safety focus areas. PennsylvaniaDOT provided five years (2010-2014) of crash data from their State database for analysis. This set ofdata included information about all crashes on all roads.A road traffic crash may occur as a result of several factors combined. In order to determine the mosteffective countermeasures to avoid speeding related crashes, it is necessary to identify as manycontributing circumstances as possible.4

Examination of fatal and serious injury (