The Indigenous Ainu Of Japan And The “Northern Territories .

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The Indigenous Ainu of Japan and the“Northern Territories” DisputebyScott HarrisonA thesispresented to the University of Waterlooin fulfillment of thethesis requirement for the degree ofMaster of ArtsinHistoryWaterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2007 Scott Harrison 2007

Author’s DeclarationI hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. This is a true copy of the thesis,including any required final revisions, as accepted by my examiners.I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public.ii

AbstractThis thesis re-examines the territorial dispute between Japan and Russia, the so-called“Northern Territories” issue, through a reinterpretation of the role of the indigenous Ainuof Japan. An exploration of Ainu history and historiography reveals that the longstanding emphasis on Wajin-based legitimacy of rule and annexation of northern areaswas replaced by historical amnesia concerning the role and status of the Ainu.Discussion focuses on an interpretation of Ainu understandings of local,regional/national and international historical events. This approach underscores theimportance of de-nationalising History by integrating the important perspectives ofIndigeneity. It asserts, further, that the understanding of these events and processesrequire a broader disciplinary prism than that provided by the study of history. Thepreponderance of nation-based studies, and not only in the field of History, has seriouslyinhibited the analysis of historical phenomena involving Indigenous peoples, in this casethe Ainu. The study of the Northern Territories issue offers, then, both a new perspectiveon the history of this important dispute and an illustration of the importance ofbroadening traditional academic studies in disciplines such as History, Anthropology,Ecology, Political Science, International Relations and Law to incorporate Indigenousperspectives and experience.iii

AcknowledgementsWe look into the past and inevitably write something about ourselves.1Although I began to learn of Ainu issues in 2000, this project is rooted in a study Icommenced four years ago on Ainu-Wajin relations. Keira Mitsunori, a representativefrom the Foundation for Research and Promotion of Ainu Culture, introduced me to Ainuissues in a seminar at Hokkaido University of Education Sapporo (HUES), Japan. TheAinu instructor of an Ainu culture and history course I later took at HUES provided moredetailed information on their contemporary issues. For this project, I am deeply indebtedto the Kawamura Kaneto Ainu Memorial and the Hokkaido Utari Association forproviding support and resources concerning Ainu perspectives. My Canadian citizenship,having Japanese as a second language, and currently residing outside of Japan haveinfluenced my own views as well as how people have perceived and responded to mewhile performing research on this topic.Thanks to the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada forfunding through a Canadian Graduate Scholarship. A University of Waterloo President’sGraduate Scholarship also provided invaluable funding after finishing my course work.The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI) in Waterloo generouslysupported my studies with a Balsillie Fellowship. I am also grateful for a University ofWaterloo’s Graduate Scholarship and the Hugh MacKinnon Graduate Scholarship.My supervisor, Kimie Hara, has been inspiring for looking at the NorthernTerritories issue through various lenses, introduced me to comparative studies withNordic conflict resolution, and provided constructive feedback on this thesis. In addition,Blaine Chiasson, Ken Coates, Whitney Lackenbauer and James Walker providedfeedback and recommendations for improving this thesis. Geoffrey Jukes commented onan earlier draft of Chapter Four for which I am appreciative. Ted Harms at the InterLibrary Loan assisted in obtaining many resources on my behalf.The owner of the Sapporo-do book store in Japan, Ishihara Makoto, provided mewith invaluable information on current research in Japanese and contemporary issuesconcerning the Ainu and recommended numerous resources. I am grateful to KodamaYoko at the Northern Studies Resource Collection for her assistance. I would like tothank those Japanese, Russian and other resident friends who provided me with places tostay, and supported me while performing research in Japan. Thank you also to MarkWatson, Chris Frey, Jean Becker, Scotty Moore, and Ben Fitzhugh.Finally, I am would like to sincerely thank my family, especially Saki Murotani,for their underlying support.Any errors within are my own.1E.P. Thompson, “The politics of Theory,” in People’s History and Socialist Theory, ed. RaphaelSamuel (London, 1981), 407; quoted in Bain Attwood, The Making of the Aborigines (Sydney: Allen& Unwin, 1989), 143.iv

Table of ContentsAuthor’s Declaration. iiAbstract . iiiAcknowledgements. ivList of Figures . viiList of Tables . viiiAbbreviations. ixINTRODUCTION . 1CHAPTER 1: The Northern Territories/Southern Kurils/Ainu Moshir Problem. 10Literature on the Northern Territories / Ainu Authors and the NorthernTerritories / Changing the Focus of Study / Consequences of Ainu NonInclusion / Reasons for Non-Inclusion of the Ainu in the LiteratureCHAPTER 2: Rethinking Indigenous Peoples in the Japanese Colonial Empire . 25Approaches of Literature / Slow to Recognise Colonial Encounters, TrendsMoving Against State-Centered, Nationalistic History and the Silencing Effectof the Frontier Thesis / Making Connections among Japanese ColoniesCHAPTER 3: Historical Overview of Ainu -Wajin Relations . 40Ainu Cultural Formation and Life-Ways / The Kunashiri-Menashi Battle of1789 / Bakufu Control of Ezochi / Meiji Japan and the AinuCHAPTER 4: The Ainu at the Time of the Åland Islands Settlement . 56The Åland Islands Settlement / Connecting Åland to Japan / The Ainu andRusso-Japanese Treaties / Nitobe Inazo, the Colonial Agency and the SapporoAgricultural College / The League of Nations, Minority Rights, IndigenousRights and Japan / New Initiatives for Solving the “Northern Territories”Dispute: Inspiration from the Åland ExperienceCHAPTER 5: The Japanese Government’s and Supporting Academic Views on theNorthern Territories . 71The End of World War II to 1981 / The Northern Territories Day, 7 February /National Trends in the Japanese Government and Its “Activists”v

CHAPTER 6: Post-War Internationalisation of the Ainu and Ainu Indigenous Diplomacy. 85The UN, Human Rights and Indigenous Diplomacy since World War II / TheHokkaido Utari Association / The Utari Association and the United Nations /Other Ainu Organisations and IssuesCONCLUSION: Expanding Frameworks: Solutions that Consider the Ainu. 117Appendixes . 123Bibliography . 136vi

List of FiguresFigure 1: Ainu Territories . xFigure 2: The Bussol Strait . 24Figure 3: The Kuril Islands . 24Figure 4: “Exchange” The Japan Punch 1875. 70Figure 5: Maps from Japan's Northern Territories . 83-84Figure 6: Kodama Sakuzaemon . 116vii

List of TablesTable 1: Ainu in the Press. 55viii

IUDHRWGIPCovenant on Civil and Political RightsConvention on the Elimination of all Forms of Racial DiscriminationCultural Promotion Act (1997)Economic and Social CouncilFoundation for Research and Promotion of Ainu CultureHokkaido Former Aborigines Protection Act (1899)Hokkaido University of Education SapporoLiberal Democratic PartyPermanent Forum on Indigenous IssuesUniversal Declaration of Human RightsWorking Group on Indigenous PopulationsNOTESI have capitalised the word “Indigenous” to conform to growing trends in publications onthe topic.Japanese names are written family name first.ix

Figure 1: Ainu Territories22William Fitzhugh and Chisato Dubreuil, eds., Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People (Washington, DC:Arctic Studies Centre National Museum of Natural History Smithsonian Institute, in association withUniversity of Washington Press, 1999), 10.x

INTRODUCTION as long as someone elsecontrols your historythe truth shall remain just a mystery Ben Harper, 1995Rational and Significance of This StudyThis thesis simultaneously addresses two politically sensitive issues: the so-called“Northern Territories” dispute and the Indigenous Ainu of Japan. There has yet to be acomprehensive historical interpretation of the Northern Territories dispute that focuses onthe Ainu which incorporates other international examples, such as the Åland Islandssettlement in northern Europe. The majority of studies on the Russo-Japanese NorthernTerritories/Southern Kurils problem ignore the historical, present and future connectionof the Indigenous Ainu. For a group of people that has been literally written out of thehistory of this dispute, many politically sensitive issues will continue to rise to the surfaceunless we seriously and critically question the status quo. It follows that anyincorporation of multilateral frameworks or international examples related to this disputewill continue to avoid the Ainu, unless they are first addressed in domestic and regionalarenas in relation to this dispute.This thesis highlights some historical blind spots of Northeast Asian history,challenges the foundation on which past and present research is based, and movestowards explaining why scholars have avoided the topic of the Ainu in relation to thisRusso-Japanese dispute. Investigating and examining the Ainu in relation to this issue isan important means to expand the current research framework and place a larger portionof relevant material on the discussion table. Looking into this particular group ofIndigenous peoples further complicates the issue at hand, but also challenges past andpresent ways of thinking and viewing this issue.This project deals mainly with the Ainu from a historical standpoint, but hasgeneral and broad connections to areas of study involving Indigenous peoples, and is byits nature intertwined with a wide variety of academic disciplines at local, regional andinternational levels. Studying Indigenous peoples inevitably leads to topics that areconnected and associated with Anthropology, Geology, History, International Relations,Law, and Political Science.1 Examination of the non-inclusion of the Ainu in relation tothe Northern Territories dispute encourages an interdisciplinary approach. This researcharea offers a unique and original addition to studies related to the Ainu and this dispute,which have all but ignored the Ainu in what they have coined as a “dispute between twothieves.”1The capitalised History is used in reference to the discipline, while history denotes its study.1

Theoretical Framework and Statement of Problem Investigated for ThisStudyIt is sometimes said that the aim of the historian is to explain the past by“finding,” “identifying,” or “uncovering” the “stories” that lie buried inchronicles; and that the difference between “history” and “fiction” residesin the fact that the historian “finds” his stories, whereas the fiction writer“invents” his. This conception of the historian’s task, however, obscuresthe extent to which “invention” also plays a part in the historian’soperations The historian arranges the events in the chronicle into ahierarchy of significance by assigning events different functions as storyelements in such a way as to disclose the formal coherence of a whole setof events considered as a comprehensible process with a discerniblebeginning, middle and end.2The objective of this thesis is not only to work towards inclusion of the Ainu in theNorthern Territories problem, but also to address and explain why scholars have notseriously included the Ainu in past and present research on this issue. This is donethrough a historical examination of the Ainu at three levels: the local, regional andinternational. Centering on the Okhotsk region, rather than the traditional view ofcentering Japan on the Kansai or Kanto regions moves the focus away from a centrifugaland largely unilateral historical