Effect Of Boron And Plant Spacing On Growth And Yield Of .

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International Journal of Chemical Studies 2019; 7(1): 1674-1678P-ISSN: 2349–8528E-ISSN: 2321–4902IJCS 2019; 7(1): 1674-1678 2019 IJCSReceived: 03-11-2018Accepted: 06-12-2018Patel MKDepartment of Horticulture,FAST, AKS University, Satna,Madhya Pradesh, IndiaNag KIndira Gandhi KrishiVishwavidyalaya KrishakNagar, Raipur, Chhattisgarh,IndiaSahu DKDepartment of Horticulture,FAST, AKS University, Satna,Madhya Pradesh, IndiaKharsan MDepartment of Horticulture,FAST, AKS University, Satna,Madhya Pradesh, IndiaAjeetDepartment of Horticulture,FAST, AKS University, Satna,Madhya Pradesh, IndiaEffect of boron and plant spacing on growth andyield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) CV.Pusa rubyPatel MK, Nag K, Sahu DK, Kharsan M, Ajeet and Rajput JSAbstractDifferent factors affect the successful production of tomato crop but boron and plant spacing is the mostimportant factors for vegetative growth, plant population and flowering, fruiting per unit area is alsoimportant and responsible for increasing the yield of tomato entitled “Effect of boron and plant spacingon growth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) CV Pusa ruby”. Have been conducted at theresearch farm of AKS University, Sherganj Satna. During Kharif season of 2015-16. Under irrigation toassess the response of tomato to boron (B) fertilizer rates and spacing’s. The treatments consisted of fourlevels of boron (0 kg, 1 kg, 2 kg and 3 kg/ha) and three levels of spacing’s (row to row 90 cm. and plantto plant 50, 60, 170 cm.). Experiment was laid out in Randomized block design with three replications.The results of the experiment showed application of boron use of spacing’s had significantly. Influenceon the most parameters such as Plant height (cm), numbers of branch/plant, day to first flowering, day to50% flowering, No. of flower/cluster, day to first fruit set, No. of fruit/cluster, fruit length, fruit diameter,average fruit weight, No. of fruit/plant, fruit yield/plant, fruit yield/plot and fruit yield/ha. 2 kg/ha boron.Experiment comprises of three spacing’s viz. 90 x 50 cm, 90 x 60 cm and 90 x 70 cm had significantly.Increase on the most parameters such as plant height (cm), numbers of branch/plant, day to firstflowering, day to 50% flowering, No. of flower/cluster, day to first fruit set, No. of fruit/cluster, fruitlength, fruit diameter, average fruit weight, No. of fruit/plant, fruit yield/plant, fruit yield/plot, fruityield/ha on wider spacing’s 90 x 60 cm.Keywords: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.), Pusa ruby, boron, spacing, growth & yieldRajput JSDepartment of Horticulture,FAST, AKS University, Satna,Madhya Pradesh, IndiaCorrespondencePatel MKDepartment of Horticulture,FAST, AKS University, Satna,Madhya Pradesh, India1. IntroductionTomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) is one of the most widely grown vegetable in the world andranked first in preserved and processed vegetables. It is said to be native of Western SouthAmerica and belongs to family solanaceae. The genus Solanum consists of annual or shortlived perennial herbaceous plants. Tomato is a typical day neutral plant and is mainly selfpollinated but a certain percentage of cross-pollination also occurs. It is a warm season crop,reasonably resistance to heat and drought and grows under wide range of soil and climaticconditions. Tomato fruits are consumed as raw or cooked besides large quantity of tomato areused to make soup, ketchup, sauce, salad, chutneys, paste and powder etc. Tomato is importantand remunerative vegetable in India. It is rich source of minerals, and vitamins and organicacids; Tomato fruit provides 3-4% total sugar, 4-7% total solids, 15-30mg/100g ascorbic acid7.5-10 mg/100g. titratable acidity and 20-50 mg/100g.fruit weight of lycopene Uttar Pradesh,Maharashtra, Karnataka, Bihar, and Orissa. Boron deficiency affects the growing points ofroots and youngest leaves. The leaves become wrinkled and curled with light green colour. Itsdeficiency affects translocation of sugar, starch, nitrogen and phosphorus, synthesis of aminoacids and proteins (Stanley et al., 1995) [8]. There is less incidence of diseases and pests andsometimes has the advantage of staking. Mechanically harvested and processing tomatoesshould be planted at close spacing. Hybrids are planted at wider spacing from row-to-row andclose spacing of plant-to-plant to facilitate mechanization.Materials and Methods: The present research works “Effect of boron and plant spacing ongrowth and yield of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.)” have been undertaken in theDepartment of Horticulture, AKS University, Satna (M.P.) during 2015-2016. Experiment hasbeen conducted at the farm of AKS University, Satna M.P. (80 21' to 81 23' east longitude and23 58' to 25 12' north latitude). The experimental plot was located about 2000 meters East of 1674

International Journal of Chemical StudiesAKS University, Campus. The experiment was arranged in afactorial randomized block design with 12 treatment splittedin two factorial i.e., four levels of boron and three plantspacing with 3 replications. The randomized of the treatmentwas done with the help of random number table as shown inthe plant of layout viz., Crop - Tomato, Design - FactorialRandomized block design, Replication - 3, Treatment - 12,Total No. of plots - 36, Plot size (meter) - 2.75 2.75, Distancebetween replications - 0.75 m., Distance between plots - 0.5m, Distance between row to row - 90 cm., Distance betweenplant to plant - 50, 60 and 70cm. Net experimental area (8.25 33) 272.25 m.2.Treatment combinationsB0 S1B1S1B0S2B1S2B0S3B1S3B2S1 B3S1B2S2 B3S2B2S3 B3S3Results: The present research work entitled “Effect of boronand plant spacing on growth and yield of tomato (Solanumlycopersicon L.)” have been undertaken in the Department ofHorticulture, AKS University, Satna (M.P.) during 20152016. Data on different parameters were analyzed statisticallyand results have been presented in tables and figures.(i) Plant height 30 (DAT): Data collected in connection withheight of the plant in (cm) as affected by different levels ofboron and plant spacing. Critical analysis of data portrayed inabove table obviously indicated that application of boron @2kg/ha caused beneficial response on height of plant at 30DAT and all the treatments were differed significantly.Maximum Plant height i.e. 44.96 cm. was recorded whenBoron was applied @ 2kg/ha. An examination of datapresented in above table indicated that use of different plantspacing’s proved to be beneficial and height of the plant heaffected significantly due to use of plant spacing andmaximum plant height 43 cm was recorded with S2 spacing(90X60) was used.(ii) Plant height 60 days (DAT): Data assembled on accountof height of the plant in (cm) as affected by different levels ofboron and plant spacing. Data displayed in above table due touse of different levels of boron. Causes striking effect onheight of the plant at 60 DAT and improved height i.e. 60.70cm was recorded by the incorporate of boron @ 2 kg/ha. Datareferred in above table mark out that height of the plant wasaffected by the use of plant spacing. Different spacing’sdiffered significantly and maximum height of plant i.e. 58.05cm was noted when S2 (90x60 cm) plant spacing was used.table obviously indicated that application of boron @ 2kg/hacaused beneficial response on height of plant at 120 DAT andtreatments were differed significantly. Maximum plant heighti.e. 179.18 cm. was recorded when boron was applied @2kg/ha. An examination of data presented in above tableindicated that use of different plant spacing’s proved to bebeneficial and height of the plant affected significantly due touse of S2 spacing.(v) Number of branches per plant at 60 (DAT): Dataassemble on account of number of branches per plant asaffected by different levels of boron and plant spacing.Number of branches per plant the main effect of boronrevealed that there was significant difference in number ofbranches per plant due to different levels of boron used. Thenumber of branches per plant was gradually increased withincreasing levels of boron. Application of boron @ 2kg/hacaused beneficial response on number of branches per plant at120 DAT and treatment were differed significantly.Maximum number of branches per plant i.e. 3.09 wasrecorded when boron was applied @ 2kg/ha. Number ofbranches per plant the main effect of spacing revealed thatthere was significant difference in number of branches perplant due to different plant spacing used. The number ofbranches per plant was gradually increased with increasingplant spacing. Number of branches per plant affectedsignificantly due to use of S2 plant spacing.(vi) Number of branches per plant 90 (DAT): Datacollected in connection with number of branches per plant asaffected by different levels of boron, plant spacing. Criticalanalysis of data portrayed in above table obviously indicatedthat application of boron @ 2kg/ha caused beneficial responseon number of branches per plant at 90 DAT and treatmentswere differed significantly. Maximum number of branches perplant i.e.6.58 was recorded when boron was applied @2kg/ha. An examination of data presented in above tableindicated that use of different plant spacing’s proved to bebeneficial and number of branches per plant affectedsignificantly due to use of S2 plant spacing.(vii) Number of branches per plant 120 (DAT): Datacollected in relation to number of branches per plant asaffected by different levels of boron, plant spacing and theirinteractions have been displayed in table No. 1.(iii) Plant height 90 days (DAT): Data collected inconnection with height of the plant in (cm) as affected bydifferent levels of boron and plant spacing. Plant height wassignificantly affected by different level of boron @ 0 kg, 1 kg,2kg and 3 kg per hectare at 90 days after transplanting (DAT).Maximum plant height was obtained when boron @ 2kg/ha.Was used and minimum plant height 72.87 cm was recordedin control (0 kg/ha). Plant height was significantly affected bydifferent plant spacing (90x50) (90x60) and (90x70) cmproved to be beneficial and height of the plant affectedsignificantly due to use of S2 spacing followed by S3.(iv) Plant height 120 days (DAT): Data collected on accountof plant height in (cm) as affected by different levels of boronand plant spacing. Critical analysis of data portrayed in above 1675 Table 1: Table showing Number of branches/plant of tomato asinfluenced by different levels of boron and plant spacing at 60 aftertransplanting.Number of branch/plant at 60 dayLevels of BoronNumber of branchB0 (0 kg/ha)2.58B1 (1 kg/ha)2.62B2 (2 kg/ha)3.09B3 (3 kg/ha)2.72SEm 0.08CD (P 0.05)0.22Plant spacingS1 (90x50 cm)2.58S2 (90x60 cm)2.95S3 (90x70 cm)2.72SEm 0.07CD (P 0.05)0.19

International Journal of Chemical Studies(viii) Days to first flowering: Data collected in connectiondays to first flowering as affected by different levels of boronand plant spacing have been displayed in table No. 2.Table 2: Table showing Days to first flowering of tomato asinfluenced by levels of boron and plant spacing.Days to first floweringLevels of Boronfirst floweringB0 (0 kg/ha)30.55B1 (1 kg/ha)30.17B2 (2 kg/ha)25.44B3 (3 kg/ha)28.71SEm 1.02CD (P 0.05)2.98Plant spacingS1 (90x50 cm)35.94S2 (90x60 cm)23.34S3 (90x70 cm)26.88SEm 0.88CD (P 0.05)2.58Fig 1: Number of fruits/ cluster of tomato as influenced by differentplant spacing(ix) Days to 50% flowering: Data collected in connectionwith days to 50% flowering was affected by different levels ofboron and plant spacing. Days taken to 50% flowering variedsignificantly due application of boron. Application of [email protected] 2kg/ha caused beneficial response on days to 50%flowering and treatments were differed significantly.Minimum days to 50% flowering i.e.34.85 (days) wasrecorded when boron was applied @ 2kg/ha. Days taken to50% flowering varied significantly due use of different plantspacing’s proved to be beneficial and days to 50% floweringaffected significantly due to use of S2 plant spacing.(x) Number of flower/cluster: Data collected in connectionnumber of flower/cluster as affected by different levels ofboron and plant spacing. Critical analysis of data portrayed inabove table obviously indicated that application of boron @2kg/ha caused beneficial response on number offlower/cluster and treatments were differed significantly.Maximum number of flower/cluster i.e. 8.25 was recordedwhen boron was applied @ 2kg/ha. An examination of datapresented in above table indicated that use of different plantspacing’s proved to be beneficial and number offlower/cluster affected significantly due to use of S2 plantspacing.(xi) Days to first fruit set: Data collected in connection daysto first fruit set as affected by different levels of boron andplant spacing. Result on the effect of boron had significanteffect on the Days to first fruit set by application of boron @2kg/ha caused beneficial response on days to first fruit set andtreatments were differed significantly. Maximum days to firstfruit set i.e. 29.08 (days) was recorded when boron wasapplied @ 2kg/ha. Result on the effect of boron hadsignificant effect on the Days to first fruit set by use ofdifferent plant spacing’s proved to be beneficial and days tofirst fruit set affected significantly due to use of S2 plantspacing.(xii) Number of fruits/cluster: Data collected in connectionnumber of fruits/cluster as affected by different levels ofboron, plant spacing and their interactions have beendisplayed in graphically represented in Fig. No. 1.(xiii) Fruit length (cm): Data collected with reference to fruitlength (cm) as affected by different levels of boron and plantspacing. Critical analysis of data portrayed in obviouslyindicated that application of boron @ 2kg/ha causedbeneficial response on fruit length (cm) and all the treatmentswere differed significantly. Maximum fruit length (cm) i.e.5.03 was recorded when boron was applied @ 2kg/ha. Anexamination of data presented in above table