Practical Guide To GADSS Autonomous Distress Tracking .

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Practical Guide to GADSS Autonomous DistressTracking ImplementationNovember1 2018

November 2018ContentsIntroduction . 3ICAO GADSS in Summary. 3GADSS Components . 3Aircraft Tracking . 4Autonomous Distress Tracking . 4Post Flight Localization and Recovery. 5ICAO GADSS stakeholders . 5European Union / EASA Implementation . 5Regulations . 5EASA: A Different Approach than ICAO for ADT . 6GADSS References . 6Standardization / Recommendation Documents . 6Key Aspects of GADSS Implementation . 7Performance Based System . 7End-to-End System Performance . 8Autonomous Distress Tracking - CAT.GEN.MPA 210 Implementation . 8Main Categories of Solutions . 8Space-based ADS-B . 8Satcom Trackers. 9ELT(DT) . 9Automatic Deployable Flight Recorder (ADFR) .10Dissimilar Complementary Technologies . 10Pros & Cons Associated with Various Solutions . 10Onboard ADT Architecture . 12OROLIA End-to-End Proposed Solution for GADSS . 13System Architecture . 13Airborne Segment: Kannad ULTIMA-DT as an ELT(DT) . 14Presentation / Features.14Main Benefits .15Service Segment: Cospas-Sarsat MEOSAR. 16Distribution Segment: Orolia’s PRISMA Suite . 17Schedule Considerations . 18Conclusion and Takeaways . 19Glossary. . 20www.orolia.com2

November 2018IntroductionFollowing several accidents where downed aircraft could not be located at all, or only after longand expensive search efforts, the Global Aeronautical Distress and Safety System (GADSS)recommendations were adopted by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in March2016. These recommendations, Standards And Recommended Practices (SARPS), support the goalof improving aircraft tracking and identifying distress situations during the flight, when it is stillpossible to track the aircraft and initiate a timely rescue operation.For the benefit of GADSS stakeholders (in particular Aircraft Operators, Rescue CoordinationCenters and Air Traffic Service Units), this white paper provides GADSS implementationconsiderations, based on the latest progress in terms of standardization and industry solutions. Italso describes Orolia’s end-to-end approach to meeting GADSS requirements.ICAO GADSS in SummaryGADSS is designed to support each flight phase, including normal flight, in-flight distresssituations, and post-flight. Amendment 40A to Annex 6, Part 1 of the ICAO convention is arecommendation especially aimed at maximizing, in case of an accident above ocean or landareas, the probability of:-Locating the aircraft and flight recorders in a timely manner for rapid accident analysisand determination of safety improvement measuresRescuing survivorsGADSS ComponentsThe figure below provides a graphic summary of GADSS components and stakeholders.Figure 1 : Graphical GADSS Summarywww.orolia.com3

November 2018Aircraft TrackingAircraft Tracking (AT), also referred to as Normal Tracking, is related to normal flight conditions(until a distress situation is encountered).Key requirements include tracking the aircraft at a maximum of 15-minute intervals worldwide,and aircraft operators are required to set up appropriate procedures to ensure the managementof this tracking data.This tracking capability must be implemented on all aircraft with a Maximum Take Off Weight(MTOW) higher than 45.5 tons, or with MTOW higher than 27 tons and carrying more than 19passengers, starting in November 2018.Aircraft Tracking is generally considered as a rather straightforward implementation. Satellitecommunications (satcom) transmissions such as Inmarsat and Iridium, and space-basedAutomatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) are seen as the enabling technologies toensure tracking continuity, even above oceanic areas.Autonomous Distress TrackingAutonomous Distress Tracking (ADT) is related to the flight phase which starts when a distresssituation is detected and stops when the aircraft ceases to fly or comes back to a normal flightsituation. An aircraft is in distress when it is in a state that, if aircraft behavior is left uncorrected,may result in an accident. EUROCAE ED-237 provides guidance on determining a distress situation.Key requirements to enable the location of an accident site within a six nautical mile (NM) radiusinclude:--A maximum one-minute interval location transmission of 4D (time, horizontal location inLAT/LON, altitude) data. Note that altitude is desirable and not mandatory, but it isimportant in order to extrapolate the aircraft trajectory.ADT transmissions must be resilient to aircraft electrical power failure, aircraft navigationand communication systems failure, as well as human factors. In particular, in case ofelectrical power loss, transmission will continue for the expected duration of theremaining flight.The aircraft operator will be notified when one of their aircraft is in a distress condition,without the need for flight crew intervention; however, the flight crew must also be ableto trigger the distress transmission.Distress tracking data will be delivered also to Search and Rescue (SAR) stakeholders aswell as Air Traffic Service Units (ATSU).False alerts will be minimized, with the probability of erroneous distress notificationsbeing lower than 1.10-5 per flight hour.Autonomous Distress Tracking capability must be implemented on all new-built aircraft withMTOW above 27 tons (no passenger number criteria) first delivered after January 1, 2021.www.orolia.com4

November 2018End-to-end ADT requirements are not only more difficult to meet from a technical perspective(compared to aircraft tracking), but it is also difficult for aircraft operators to distinguish whichcandidate solution really meets the requirements, since guidance and means of compliancematerial are still being developed.It is therefore important to consider ADT not as a simple extension of AT, and instead address itsimplementation as a specific project, requiring its own dedicated solution.Post Flight Localization and RecoveryPost Flight Localization and Recovery (PFLR) is required at the end of the flight, following a distresssituation.Key requirements include:-Locating the accident site (immediately after crash) with better than 1 NM accuracy.Improving the ability to retrieve the aircraft above or under water, by means of:o Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)o ULB emitting at 8.8 kHz and attached to the flight recorderCommunicating the accident location to SAR stakeholders, as well as ATSU and relevantauthorities.Post Flight Localization and Recovery capability must be implemented for all new- typecertification with MTOW above 27 tons and more than 19 passengers, after January 1, 2021.ICAO GADSS stakeholdersWhile aircraft operators have the primary responsibility for ensuring compliance with AircraftTracking, Autonomous Distress Tracking and Post Flight Localization and Recovery, distresstracking data (including end of flight location) must be made available to two other keystakeholders:-Rescue Coordination Centers (RCC)Air Traffic Service Units (ATSU)Relevant national authorities and accident investigation agencies are also important stakeholders.European Union / EASA ImplementationRegulationsThe European Union adopted GADSS recommendations through Commission Regulation (EU)2015/2338 – December 2015, which amends regulation (EU) 965/2012. EU 2015/2338 introducesCAT.GEN.MPA 205 related to aircraft tracking systems (applicable from December 16, 2018) andCAT.GEN.MPA 210 related to Location of an Aircraft in Distress (applicable from January 1, 2021).As an incentive to implement an ADT system on new-built large aircraft after January 1, 2021, thisEU regulation notably allows the use of an ADT system instead of the currently mandatorywww.orolia.com5

November 2018automatic ELT. In order to encourage the retrofit of older aircraft, the regulation also allows forthe replacement of existing automatic ELTs with an ADT system, rather than requiring both.Aircraft Tracking has already been adopted by many civil aviation authorities (China, Australia,Malaysia, Singapore, etc.), while autonomous distress tracking adoption is still underconsideration.EASA: A Different Approach than ICAO for ADTEASA implementation of GADSS differs from ICAO as follows:-EASA focuses on rescuing survivors (in the case of a survivable crash), whereas ICAOfoc