Shamanism: An Encyclopedia Of World Beliefs, Practices .

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SHAMANISm2

SHAMANISmAN ENCYCLOPEDIA OFWO R L D B E L I E F S , P R AC T I C E S ,A N D C U LT U R EEdited byMariko Namba Walterand Eva Jane Neumann FridmanSanta Barbara, California Denver, Colorado Oxford, England

C OPYRIGHT 2004 BYMARIKO NAMBA WALTER AND EVA JANE NEUMANN FRIDMANAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except forthe inclusion of brief quotations in a review, without prior permission inwriting from the publishers.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataShamanism: an encyclopedia of world beliefs, practices, and culture /edited by Mariko Namba Walter and Eva Jane Neumann Fridman.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN 1-57607-645-8 (alk. paper) — ISBN 1-57607-646-6 (e-book) 1. Shamanism—Encyclopedias. I. Walter, Mariko Namba. II. Fridman, Eva Jane Neumann.GN475.8.S445 2004201'.44'03—dc22200402041607 06 05 0410 987654321This book is also available on the World Wide Web as an eBook.Visit http://www.abc-clio.com for details.ABC-CLIO, Inc.130 Cremona Drive, P.O. Box 1911Santa Barbara, California 93116–1911This book is printed on acid-free paper.Manufactured in the United States of America

2 CONTENTSForeword, ixIntroduction, xvAlphabetical List of Entries, xxixVOLUME 1GENERAL THEMES INWORLD SHAMANISM, 1AAnimal Symbolism (Africa), 3Animal Symbolism (Americas), 7Animal Symbolism (Asia), 11Archaeology of Shamanism, 16Art and Shamanism, 21BBioenergetic Healing, 29Buddhism and Shamanism, 30CChristianity and Shamanism, 35Colonialism and Shamanism, 41Core Shamanism and Neo-Shamanism, 49Costume, Shaman, 57Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Shamans, 61DDaoism and Shamanism, 71Demonic Possession and Exorcism, 74Divination, 78Dramatic Performance in Shamanism, 82Dreams and Visions, 89Drumming in Shamanistic Rituals, 95Drums, Shamanic: Form and Structure, 101EEcology and Shamanism, 107Entheogens (Psychedelic Drugs) andShamanism, 111Entoptic Images, 117Ethnocentrism and Shamanism, 119Extraction, 124FFire and Hearth, 127GGender in Shamanism, 131HHealing and Shamanism, 137History of the Study of Shamanism, 142Horses, 147Hypnosis and Shamanism, 149IInitiation, 153M“Magic,” Power, and Ritual in Shamanism,161Messianism and Shamanism, 169Museum Collections, 174Music in World Shamanism, 179v

VICONTENTSNNeuropsychology of Shamanism, 187OOfferings and Sacrifice in Shamanism, 197PPilgrimage and Shamanism, 201Psychology of Shamanism, 204Psychopathology and Shamanism, 211Psychopomp, 217RRock Art and Shamanism, 219SSoul Retrieval, 225Spirit Possession, 228Spirits and Souls, 235Sufism and Shamanism, 238TTantrism and Shamanism, 243Trance Dance, 247Trance, Shamanic, 250Transformation, 255Transvestism in Shamanism, 259Trees, 263UUrban Shamanism, 265VVisions and Imagery: Western Perspectives,267WWitchcraft and Sorcery in Shamanism, 2712NORTH AMERICA, 275American Indian Medicine Societies,281Choctaw Shamanism, 285Ghost Dance and Prophet Dance, 287Great Basin Hunters and Gatherers,292Greenland Shamanism, 297Hopi Shamanism, 303Inuit Shamanism (Central Arctic), 307Iroquois (Haudenosaunee) Shamanism andSecret Societies, 312Lakota Shamanism, 315Navajo Shamanism, 318New Orleans Voudou (North America), 323North American Oral Traditions andShamanism, 331Ojibwa Shamanism, 334Peyote Ritual Use (Central America andNorth America), 336Piman Oral Literature and Shamanism, 339Pueblo Religion and Spirit Worlds, 346Yokuts Shamanism (California), 350Yuman Shamanism (Northern BajaCalifornia), 354Yupik and Inupiaq Masks (Alaska), 358Yupik Shamanism (Alaska), 362CENTRAL ANDSOUTH AMERICA, 365Afro-Brazilian Shamanism, 371Amazon Funeral Rites and Shamanism(Brazil), 375Ayahuasca Ritual Use, 378Central and South American Shamanism,382Curanderismo (the Americas), 393Dark Shamanism (Amazonia), 396Huichol (Wixárika) Shamanism (Mexico),399Kanaimà Shamanism (Amazonia), 406Latin American Christianity and Shamanism,409Latin American Literature and Shamanism,414Mapuche Shamanism, 417Maya Bone Divination, 425Maya Cosmology, 426Mayan Shamanism, 431Otomí (Ñähñu) Indian Shamanism (Mexico),435Peruvian Shamans, 439Quiche and Zuni Divination (Guatemala andNew Mexico), 446Santería (Afro-Cuban Tradition), 449Tarahumara Shamanism (Mexico), 453Toba Shamanism (Argentina), 461

CONTENTSEUROPE, 465“Celtic Shamanism”: Pagan Celtic Spirituality,469Classical World Shamanism (Ancient Greeceand Rome), 478Fairies and Shamanism, 484Finno-Ugric Shamanism, 486VIINeo-Shamanism in Germany, 496Nordic Shamanism, 500Paganism in Europe, 504Russian Folklore and Shamanism, 509Russian Shamanism Today, 513Witchcraft in Russia, 516Witchcraft in the Modern West, 519VOLUME 2EURASIA, 523Ancient Iranian Religions and Shamanism,529Ancient North Asian Shamanism, 532“Black” Shamans, “White” Shamans, 536Buryat Shamanism (Mongolia), 539Darkhad Shamanism (Mongolia), 545Deer Imagery and Shamanism (Siberia), 547Evenki Shamanism (Siberia and Manchuria),551Funeral Rites in Eurasian Shamanism, 557Kalmyk Shamanic Healing Practices, 564Kazak Shamanism, 569Khakass Shamanism, 573Kirghiz Shamanism (West Central Asia), 579Manchu Shamanism, 582Mongolian Shamanic Texts, 586Mongolian Shamanic Tradition and Literature,593Oroqen Shamanism (Northeast China), 597Priestesses of Eurasia, 601Sakha (Yakut) Shamanism (Northeast Asia),608Sibe Shamanism (Manchuria), 615Siberian Shamanism, 618Spirits and Ghosts in Mongolia, 627Tajik Shamanism (Central Asia), 629Teleutian Shamanism (Siberia), 632Tuvan Shamanism, 637Uyghur Healers (China), 642Uzbek Shamanism, 646Yellow Shamans (Mongolia), 649KOREA AND JAPAN, 653Ainu Shamanism (Japan), 657Cheju-do Island Shamanism (Korea), 666Japanese Shamanic Music, 670Japanese Shamanism, 674Korean Shamanism, 681Mountain Priests—Shugend (Japan), 689Okinawan Shamans and Priestesses, 693Tsugaru Shamanism (Japan), 700CHINA AND SINO-ASIA, 705Chinese Shamanism, Classical, 709Chinese Shamanism, Contemporary, 713Nong Shamanism (South China), 722Qiang Ritual Practices, 725Spirit Writing in Hong Kong, 729Spirit Mediumship (Singapore), 732Taiwanese Shamanic Performance and Dance,736SOUTH ASIA, THE HIMALAYAS,AND TIBET, 741Ancient South Indian Shamanism, 745Chepang Shamanism (Nepal), 747Hinduism and Ecstatic Indian Religions, 750Ladakhi Shamans and Oracles (Himalayas),756Manipur Meitei Shamanism (Northeast India),763Nepalese Shamans, 766Priestesses (Mediums) of Sri Lanka, 773Rai Shamanism (Nepal), 775South Asian Shamanism, 778Spirit Possession in Rajasthan (India), 784Tibetan Shamanism, 790SOUTHEAST ASIA, 799Burmese Spirit Lords and Their Mediums,803Hmong Shamanism (Thailand, Laos), 806Indonesian Shamanism, 810Javanese Shamanism (Indonesia), 815Malay Shamans and Healers, 818

VIIICONTENTSMurut Shamanism (Borneo), 824Semai Shamanism (Borneo), 827Shadow Puppetry and Shamanism (Java), 832Southeast Asian Shamanism, 834Taman Shamanism (Borneo), 842Thai Spirit World and Spirit Mediums, 847AUSTRALASIA AND OCEANIA, 851Atayal Shamanism (Taiwan), 857Australian Aboriginal Shamanism, 860Dreams and Shamanism (Papua New Guinea),865Maori Religion, 869Oceania: Rituals and Practitioners, 874Puyuma Shamanism (Taiwan), 880AFRICA, 885!Kung Healing, Ritual, and Possession, 891African Traditional Medicine, 895Ancestor Worship in Africa, 899Ancient Egyptian Shamanism, 906Asante Shamanism (Ghana), 910Cape Nguni Shamanism (South Africa),914Hausa Shamanistic Practices (Nigeria andNiger), 920Igbo Shamanism (Nigeria), 925Mami Wata Religion (West Africa), 928Marabouts and Magic (West Africa), 930Ndembu Shamanism (Zambia), 934Swahili Healers and Spirit Cult (East Africa),938Twin Cult of the Akan (Ghana), 942Witchcraft in Africa, 946Yaka Shamanistic Divination (SouthwesternCongo), 951Zarma Spirit Mediums (Niger), 954Zulu Shamanism (South Africa), 957Bibliography, 963Advisory Board, 1027Contributors, 1029Index, 1035About the Editors, 1061

2 FOREWORDWhen Mircea Eliade wrote his major work on shamanism in 1951, he set himself the goalof reading every existing publication on the subject. He compiled a list of some sixhundred items, the largest part consisting of articles in Russian. By the time Eliade recounted this memory in 1985, he reckoned that more than 2,000 book-length studies of shamanism had appeared in the intervening thirty-four years as well as countless scholarly articles in manylanguages—more than an individual can cover. Eliade’s Shamanism, still in print today, intensifiedenthusiasm for the subject by challenging the prevalent view that shamanism was a mental illness.Instead, he interpreted the dramatic trances, ecstatic visions, and extravagant behaviors as signs ofa life-transforming spiritual experience with a wide range of profound consequences beneficial toself and society.Far from sating the appetite for shamanism, the amazing surge of interest in shamanism amongpundits and in pop culture over the past two decades has generated greater interest still—a curiousfate for a religious expression once deemed archaic, pathological, and approaching oblivion. Nolonger can one person fully absorb the explosion of ideas about shamanism coming from such distinct fields as, for example, neurobiology, pharmacology, and gender studies.Shamanism serves, in this respect, as a parable for religious life more broadly in our day. Even asthe death knell of religions sounded in the halls of the academy and in other strongholds of secularpolicy throughout the twentieth century—based on psychological, economic, or sociological theories—religious fervor continued in circles disvalued by scholars or, more remarkably, renewed itselfin the face of prevailing efforts at secularization. As with so many aspects of religious life, a mix ofintellectual curiosity and spiritual seeking has churned up a sea of information about shamanismand produced a flood of interpretations regarding its practices, experiences, and overall meaning.The study of religion and shamanism has grown apace with the awareness of the vitality of religious life. The subject of shamanism has long called for an encyclopedic treatment, but the subjecthas proven increasingly daunting due as much to the breadth of its manifestations as to the difficulty of specifying its precise nature.The great accomplishment of Mariko Walter and Eva Fridman is twofold. They first of all embrace the rich and fascinating complexity of shamanism, assembling in one place the evidencefrom cultures throughout the world and presenting this rich diversity in arrangements accessible toscholars and general readers alike. In the second place, they include the full range of importantperspectives on the topic, inviting the best ethnographic specialists to describe what they knowabout shamanism from firsthand field studies, as well as asking philosophical writers and religiousthinkers to reflect more broadly on the meaning of such behaviors and beliefs. Ingeniously, theyhave also commissioned creative commentaries on the relationship of shamanic experience to suchdistinct domains as dreams and drama, art and music, clothing and governance. In this landmarknew work, Walter and Fridman take care to address the broad cultural interest in shamanism and,ix

XFOREWORDespecially, its connection to healing and the extraordinary spiritual adventures that enlarge thesense of oneself and the world.Both Walter and Fridman specialize in the study of Central Asia, which holds a special place forthe understanding of shamanism. And yet their collaboration for this project began on the otherside of the globe, at Harvard University, where both scholars served as fellows at the Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions. As director of the Harvard Center from 1990 to2003, I saw their first outline for the project and have followed their developing plans. I remainimpressed by their open-architecture approach to the subject, an openness that allows them to begin with broad working definitions so as to include within the encyclopedia the full press of conflicting opinions about the nature and significance of shamanism. And I remain impressed as wellwith their thorough knowledge of the subject, beginning with their linguistic abilities, which letsthem work not only in Western European and Central Asian languages but in Russian, Chinese,and Japanese as well. Their complete familiarity with shamanism extends from their own fieldwork to their control of the historical and anthropological literature on the subject. Their unusualcapacities and dedication have produced a wonderful work well suited to the new realizationsabout shamanism. No doubt this encyclopedia will benefit all interested readers and serve as aspark for further exploration of one of humankind’s richest spiritual heritages.Lawrence E. SullivanProfessor of the History of ReligionsThe University of Notre Dame14 September 2004

2 PREFACEShamanism is a living, vital phenomenon, one that interests a wide range of people. Today it isclear that shamanism, as an area of academic study, is a rich and rapidly evolving field. Thisencyclopedia represents a wide range of perspectives and approaches of over 180 contributorsaccording to their academic specialties. Thus it is not the intent of this encyclopedia to present ahomogenized picture, either of the phenomenon of shamanism or of the present state of shamanism as a field of study. The reader will find the story of the development of the field and some ofthe most pertinent theoretical and historical issues addressed in the Introduction, as well as in related entries.Shamans are globally distributed and shamanism is an ancient spiritual practice. Thus this encyclopedia covers this most human spiritual endeavor in its worldwide manifestations, with the goalof developing an inclusive and multidimensional picture of shamanism as currently and historically encountered throughout the world. The scope of the entries in these two volumes