DRAFT ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVENTORY SURVEY REPORTFOR SEVERAL PARCELS OF LAND SITUATED WITHINWAIKAPŪ AHUPUA A; WAILUKU DISTRICTPŪ ALI KOMOHANA MOKULOCATED AT TMK:  3-6-002:003; 3-6-004:003, 006; and 3-6005:007;ISLAND OF MAUIFOR: Waikapū Partners LLC.,BY: Diane Guerriero (B.A.), Andre e Conley-Kapoi (M.A.), Lisa J. Rotunno-Hazuka (B.A.)and Jeffrey Pantaleo (MA)SEPTEMBER 2013ARCHAEOLOGICAL SERVICES HAWAII, LLC.,POB 1015; PU UNENE, HI96784-1015“Protecting, Preserving, Interpreting the Past, While Planning the Future”1
EXECUTIVE SUMMARYUnder contract to Waikapū Partners, LLC, ASH, Archaeological Services Hawaii, LLC, of Makawao,conducted an archaeological inventory survey (AIS) of several parcels (TMK’s 3-6-002:003; 3-6004:003, 006; and 3-6-005:007) comprising approximately 503-acres. The project area is situated in theupper Waikapū ahupua a, Traditional Moku Pū ali Komohana, Wailuku District, Island of Maui.Waikapū Partners landholdings total 1576-acres; however only 503-acres will be improved and theremaining land will continue in sugarcane and or small scale agriculture. The current investigation wasconducted to determine presence/absence, extent, and significance of historic properties within the projectarea and to formulate future mitigation measures for these remains within the subject area.The proposed development plan consists of single and multi-family residential units, open space,commercial and civic properties with open space. The project area was divided into five zones basedprimarily on the TMK’s. From mauka to makai the zones are as follows: Parcel 3 Mauka, constitutes themauka section of TMK 3-6-004:003; Parcel 3 Waena is the middle and remaining section of TMK 3-6004:003: Parcel 6 is TMK 3-6-004:006; Parcel 7 is the current Maui Tropical Plantation landholdings 3-6004:007 and Parcel 3 Makai is within TMK 3-6-002:003.The current undertaking consisted of a pedestrian survey and subsurface exploration through theexecution of 150 backhoe test trenches within the five aforementioned zones. Four historic propertiesdesignated Sites 50-50-04-7881-7884 (formerly TS1, 3-5) comprised of 19 subcomponent features werenewly recorded with the majority related to sugarcane cultivation. One historic property, Site 5197Waihe e Ditch is extant within the central portion of the project area and was also recorded. Site 7881Features 1-18 consists of concrete lined ditches, sluice gates, dirt culverts with concrete lined headwalls.7882 (TS3) is a disturbed, historic L-shaped retaining wall. Site 7883 (TS3) comprises a World War IIbunker and Site 7884 Features 1- 3 (TS 2 and 5) are secondarily deposited historic materials recorded atthree localities within the project area. The subsurface testing program constituted 150 backhoe trencheswhich were primarily negative for cultural remains.Sites 50-50-04-7881-7884 are assessed a significance of Criterion D, as they have yielded, or have thepotential to yield significant information pertaining to the history of the area. Site 7883, the World War IIbunker is also significant under Criterion C, as a distinct method or style of construction during a certainera.Based on the proposed development plan, the historic scatters (Site 7884 Features 2-3) within Parcels 6and 7 will be adversely affected during development and portions of Waihe e Ditch (Site 5197) will be2
covered. These historic properties have been adequately documented and require no further work besidesconstruction monitoring. Within Parcel 3 Mauka, Sites 7881 (agricultural waterways, sluice gates,reservoirs), 7882 (L-shaped retaining wall) and 7883 (WWII bunker) have also been documented at theinventory level and may be removed if warranted; however archaeological monitoring is recommended.Additionally, if the WWII bunker (Site 7883) can’t be incorporated into the development scheme, amemorial plaque documenting this historic site should be erected.Archaeological monitoring of Parcel 3 Mauka and Waena is primarily recommended for those areaswhich contain former LCA’s and Grants, as well as extant historic properties; however spot monitoringinspections of other localities not expressed above may also be instituted. Parcels 6 and 7 containnumerous LCA’s and Grants; thus monitoring will initially be full time until the nature of the subsurfaceconditions in relationship to the proposed ground-altering activities is determined. Similarly for Parcel 3Makai, monitoring will initially be full-time; yet it is envisioned that the primary focus will be along theeastern and western perimeters which are close to Waiale and Waiko Roads, areas known to contain sanddune burials. Prior to the commencement of construction, an Archaeological Monitoring Plan (AMP)detailing the localities to undergo monitoring procedures will be prepared and submitted to SHPD forreview and approval.3
TABLE OF CONTENTSEXECUTIVE SUMMARY . 2TABLE OF CONTENTS . 4LIST OF FIGURES . 9LIST OF TABLES . 16INTRODUCTION . 16PROJECT AREA . 17Parcel 3 Mauka . 23Parcel 3 Waena . 23Parcel 3 Makai . 23Parcel 6. 23Parcel 7. 23ENVIRONMENT . 27TRADITIONAL AND HISTORICALBACKGROUND . 31Mythological and Traditional Accounts. 31Early Historic Period. 35Historic Background Mid-1800 to Late-1800 . 36PRIOR LAND USE . 38LAND TENURE . 42PREVIOUS ARCHAEOLOGY . 49Archaeological Research Conducted in the Environs of the Project Area . 54Previous Archaeological Research Conducted Within the Boundaries of the Project Area . 59SETTLEMENT PATTERNS . 63SITE EXPECITABILY . 64METHODS AND PROCEDURES . 644
DOCUMENT REVIEW . 64FIELD METHODOLOGY . 64LAB WORK . 65RESULTS . 66SITE 50-50-04-7881 (TS 1) . 66Site 7881 Feature 1 . 66Site 7881 Feature 2 . 71Site 7881 Feature 3 . 73Site 7881 Feature 3a. 73Site 7881 Feature 4 . 74Site 7881 Feature 4a. 75Site 7881Feature 5 . 78Site 7881 Feature 6 . 78Site 7881 Feature 7 . 79Site 7881 Feature 8 . 80Site 7881Features 9-18 . 82Site 7881 Feature 9 . 82Site7881 Feature 10 . 83Site 7881 Feature 11 . 85Site 7881 Feature 12 . 86Site 7881 Feature 13 . 87Site 7881 Feature 14 . 88Site 7881 Feature 15 . 89Site 7881 Feature 16 . 90Site 7881 Feature 17 . 91Site 7881 Feature 18 . 93SITE 7884 (TS2) FEATURE 1 . 965
SITE 7882 (TS3) . 99Site 50-50-04-7883 (TS3) . 101Temporary Site 4. 106Temporary Sites 21 and 22 . 109Temporary Site 21. 109Temporary Site 22. 109PARCEL 3 MAUKA DISCUSSION . 111BACKHOE TESTING RESULTS . 112PARCEL 3 MAUKA . 112OVERALL STRATIGRAPHY. 113Trench 400 . 117Trench 406 .