Teaching Handbook - ODU

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Teaching Handbook

OLD DOMINION UNIVERSITYTeaching HandbookForward & AcknowledgementsThis Handbook grew out of our desire to give current and future ODU teaching assistants and instructorsthe knowledge and tools to successfully meet the challenges of preparing our students to be productive andstskilled members of our global 21 Century society. We have drawn from both theoretical and appliedresearch studies and from the best practices used at other major universities. With permission of Dr. KarenthKlomparens, we have incorporated with minor modifications entire sections of the 5 Edition of MichiganState University’s Teaching Assistant manual. We have also drawn upon and incorporated materialsdeveloped by the ODU Center for Learning Technologies. As much as possible, we have providedpractical examples and scenarios to help in the understanding and application of the theoretical principlesand practical recommendations for creating effective active learning and effective teaching strategies. ThisHandbook will require constant revisions to ensure that the pedagogical skills and effectiveness of ODUteaching assistants and instructors are at the highest level possible.Philip J. Langlais, Ph.D.Professor of Psychology, College of SciencesLoreta H. Ulmer, Ed.D.Instructional Designer and Associate ProfessorJune, 20102010 Center for Learning Technologies & Office of Graduate StudiesOld Dominion UniversityNorfolk, VA 23529

Table of ContentsChapter 1 – Teaching & Learning in the 21st Century . 4Students of the 21st Century. 4Summary. 7Chapter 2 - Active Learning & Effective Strategies .9Instructor Knowledge .10Interaction .11Interacting Successfully with Students 12Tension Points in Teaching .12Demonstrating Problem Solving .15Lecturing and Other Activities 15How to Plan an Effective Lecture .16Instructional Strategies for Actively Involving Students . 20Active Learning: Discussion, Writing, Collaborative Learning . .22Ground Rules .27Getting Students to Ask the Questions .30Conducting Office Hours 32Collaborative Learning .33Incorporating Writing in Instruction .34Instructing and Lab Sections .37Reading and Studying to Construct Meaning .41Summary .45Chapter 3 - Teaching and Learning Outcomes 48Developing Student Learning Outcomes 48Developing Rubrics 51Using Templates .52Types of Learning Outcomes 52Summary .55Chapter 4 - The Syllabus as a Learning Tool .57The Importance of the Syllabus 58Preparing an Effective Course Syllabus .582

Using the Syllabus in Class .60The Syllabus and Organizing the Course .60Defining the Role of the Student .61Providing a Clear Statement of Goals and Outcomes .61Evaluation Strategies 61Providing Learning Resources and Tools .62Summary .63Chapter 5 - Learner-Centered Assignments & Teaching with Technology.65Assignments and Self-Regulated Learning .65When Students Realize They Are Having Problems .65Helping Students Understand . .67Teaching with Props, Visual Aids and Technology .68Delivery Modes .68Electronic Information @ ODU .70Instructional Software .70Classroom Central .70Technology Classrooms .70The World Wide Web .71Summary .71Additional and Recommended Readings 73APPENDIX A – Rubrics and Templates 76APPENDIX B – Learner-Centered Syllabus 863

1ChapterTeaching & Learning in the 21st CenturyIntroductionOldDominion University promotes the advancement of knowledge and the pursuit of truthlocally, nationally, and internationally. It develops in students a respect for the dignity and worthof the individual, a capacity for critical reasoning, and a genuine desire for learning. It fosters theextension of the boundaries of knowledge through research and scholarship and is committed tothe preservation and dissemination of a rich cultural heritage. Old Dominion University is oldenough to value tradition yet young enough to facilitate change. In a spirit of creativeexperimentation, innovation, research, and technology, the University is ready to meet thechallenges of the twenty-first century.Teaching and learning has changed significantly in the 20th Century. The classroom environmenthas become more student-centered, the professor more of a facilitator of learning. There is agreater use of technology to encourage learning and motivate student collaboration. There aredifferent ‘delivery modes’ for teaching and there are students of all ages in your classrooms.Textbooks are no longer the only source of information. Students use multiple sources.Curriculum is multi-disciplinary and no longer focused upon memorization of information, butrather on learning how to learn and think critically and creatively.In this chapter, we will review some characteristics of today’s students.Students of the 21st CenturyThe semester is only weeks away and professors are busy preparing their course materials.Some are working on traditional face-to-face courses, while some are working on Teletechnet,hybrid or online courses. Some are seasoned veterans of large auditorium-style courses, someare delivering small graduate level seminars, and some are relatively new instructors. What allinstructors have in common is a sense that something is changing in today’s student populationwith respect to learning. Occasionally professors will gather together and share observationssuch as “These kids just can’t pay attention!” or “Students are expecting to be spoon-fed thematerial!!” Some are frustrated and some are blasting ahead. What all of these professors havein common is the experience of teaching students of the 21st Century.4

Multiple GenerationsOne of the differences you will notice when comparing the classroom of the 20th Centurywith your current classroom is that the students are more diverse in ethnicity, culture andage. Your students may be Boomers, Gen-Xers, or the NetGen.Let’s explore some of the differences.o BoomersCold war, Space race, Vietnam, Watergateo Gen-Xers 1965 – 1981Berlin wall, AIDS, World Wide Webo The Net Generation, Milennials or the Digital NativesAfter 1982(Oblinger, 2003)The Gen X and Net Gen students are often called the "Digital Natives" because of their affinity forand skill with technology. Baby boomers, who often avoid technology or certainly do not usetechnology the same way as Gen X and Net Gen students, are referred to as "DigitalImmigrants." The table below shows some of the common differences between the two groups.Digital Immigrants vs. Digital Natives(Prensky, 2001)Digital ImmigrantsDigital NativesNon-native speakersNative speakers (digital language of computers, videogames, the Internet)Traditional learnersTrial and error learners (by college graduation lessthan 5,000 hours spent reading, 10,000 playing videogames)Legacy content (reading,writing, arithmetic, logicalthinking)Future content (digital and technological content)The table on the following page compares the differences in learning styles of the Boomergeneration vs. the Gen X and Net Generations. How we create and present content should bebased on our target population.5

Comparison of Silent & Boomer Generations vs. Gen X & Net Gen Learning StylesCharacteristic Learning Style of Silent/Boomers Characteristic Learning Style of Gen X/Net GenLinear Acquisition of InformationNonlinear (hyperlinked) logic of learningFocused mainly on facts and knowledgeacquisitionFocused more on deutero-learning(learning how to learn)Guided LearningAutonomous learningLearning in specified time periodsLearning 24/7Face-to-face learningInteractive virtual learningLearning as dutyLearning as fun, challenge,worthwhile/meaningfulRote learningAnalogical learning (comparisons betweenrelevant and familiar things that aresimilar)Common characterizations of students’ interest in and ability to use technology in teaching andlearning were described in the EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research (ECAR) 2005 Study ofStudents and Information Technology (ECAR 2005) and included: Students are demanding a greater use of technology in teaching and learning. Faculty must use technology at an increasing rate to hold the attention of students. Students already possess good IT skills and need no further trainingWhile these are typical characterizations, they are not necessarily bad news. Students aredemanding a moderate use of technology in their courses (ECAR, 2005; ECAR, 2007) forconvenience and connection. This use and reliance on technology does not to take away fromthe valuable face-to-face interaction with professors. ECAR (2007) examined 400 studies aboutfactors of retention and found that degree completion is dependent on students' face-to-face timewith instructors and their integration into the academic environment. The idea that faculty mustuse technology for the sake of technology, in order to hold the attention of students, is notsupported by research on this topic. ECAR (2007) found that students in engineering andbusiness prefer more IT in courses. However, this same study found that student abilities intechnology are not consistent and some courses that use specific technologies would benefitfrom training students in the use of technology (ECAR 2007). An example of such a technology isthe iPod. Student ownership of electronic music/video devices has risen from 53% in 2005 to76 % in 2007.6

Teaching multiple generations requires special attention in order to keep all studentssatisfied with the use of technology in the classroom. Some recommendations forinstructing diverse populations include:o Training for faculty and studentso Faculty must be completely proficient with the technology chosen, and mustobtain training to become proficiento Once the faculty is trained, they can instruct students on the use of technologyin the course by creating an overview or an orientation on the technologyo Create a “test” scenario that is not graded to ensure that all students are ableto use the technology before requiring the use of the technology in a gradedassignment. An example of this would be to create an assignment in Blackboard tosubmit a word document with the student’s name, reason why theychose to take the class, and expectations for the course. Technophobic students will rest easy once the test assignment hasbeen successfully submitted to the instructor Create a test designed as a scavenger hunt on the syllabus tofamiliarize the students both with the syllabus and the process forsubmitting a test.SummaryOld Dominion University is comprised of a diverse population of students. In your classroom youwill find traditional students who have recently graduated from high school, as well as nontraditional students who have spent years in the workforce, military, or managed a family andhome. Your students may have traveled from another country, or continent making English theirsecond language. Some of your students may use cell phones, iPhones, or laptops tocommunicate with each other. You may be teaching in a Teletechnet classroom, a technologyclassroom or a traditional lecture hall. For all of this, the focus is on teaching and learning;understanding your material and methods for presenting content in a clear and concise way sothat students understand, remember and apply what they have learned. Research tells us thatwhile our students may use technology to communicate, listen to music or play games, they maynot be proficient in the use of technology as a learning tool. Old Dominion University providesfaculty support and training to help you become comfortable with technology and moreknowledgeable about the characteristics of our student population. The University is interested inpreparing you for teaching and learning in the 21st Century.7

REFERENCES:, The ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology, 2005, The ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology, 2007.Oblinger, D. (2003). Boomers, Gen-Xers and Millenials: Understanding the new students,Educause Review, July/August.Prensky, M. (2001). Digital natives, digital immigrants. On The Horizon, Vol. 9, No. 5.October, 2001.8

2ChapterActive Learning and Effective TeachingStrategies1IntroductionOldDominion University is committed to the development of active student-centeredlearning which has been discussed extensively in the literature from the instructor andstudent perspective (Diamond, 1998; McKeachie, 1994; Pregent, 1994; Angelo, 1993).Although the basic principles of active student-centered learning are familiar to most, manyfaculty members struggle with the application of these principles into various aspects ofcourse construction. A student-centered course sets a framework for knowledge, andencourages student responsibility for learning (Diamond, 1998; Pregent, 1994; Grunert,1997). From the planning stages through the implementation stages, the student-centeredcourse facilitates the creation of a purposeful environment promoting active engagement inthe learning process (Grunert, 1997).Comparison of Teacher-centered and Student-centered Paradigms(Learner-Centered Assessment on College Campuses by Huba and Freed 2000)Knowledge is transmitted fromprofessor to studentsStudents construct knowledge through gather