Department of Energy and Natural ResourcesILLINOIS STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEYILLINOIS MINERALS 1081991
STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Leighton, Chiefatural Resources Building615 East Peabody DriveChampaign, Illinois 61820
: Surface mining of coal at the Arch of IllinoisCaptain Mine in Perry County (photo by Joel Dexter)[email protected] on recycled paperPrinted by authority of the State of INinois/1991/400
MINEFuelsCoalCrude Oilatural GasIndustrial and Construction MaterialsPrimary BariteClaysFluorsparSand and Gravelindustrial SandStoneTripoliMetalsZinc, Lead, Silver, and CopperOther MineralsPeatGemstonesMICrude lodineIron-Qxide PigmentsNatural-Gas LiquidsPrirna yand Secondary Slab ZincMCementClay ProductsCokeGlassLimellMlineFuelsdustrial and Constructionetals and Other MineralsMinerals Processed
23678910111213meral production in lllinoisEnergy used illlinois coalTrends in the productivity of coal mining, 1965-198Annual crude-oil production in IllinoisConsumption of natural gas, 1970-1Trends in common clay production,-6 989Districts and counties produci sand and gravel in 1988Districts and counties produciProduction and consumptiond cement, 1965-1 989Trends in consumption of quilime, 1965-1 989Illinois minerals extracted, pro1987-89: production and valuemanufactured into products,U S . mineral production, 1988-89factured by county in Illinois,Minerals extractin 1989Employment and wages in the Illinois ineral industry, 1988-89Minerals consumed in Illinois, 1988-8Fuels and energy consumed in Illinois, 1988-89Coal production in lllinois counties, 1988-89Coal production in lllinois counties, 1833-1 989Employment and production by method of al mining in fllinois, 1978-89Coal production of lllinois companies, 198Coal shipped from Illinois to other slates,Sources of coal consumed in Illinois, "1985-89Crude-oil production in lllinois counties between 1888 and 1989; valuefor 1988 and 1989Crude-oil production fromPetroleum products consuNatural-gas production inlllinois counties, 1987-89in Illinois, 1987 and 1989
This report covers three types of mineral inextracting minerals from the groundprocessing crude minerals (mined prmanandIs1989The total reported value of minerals extracted, processe1989 rose to 2,842.9 million, 1.2 percent higher than thereported to the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM)isproducers do not report their production figures.MC HENRYisfyl(DDE*PLANTSC cementP petroleum refineryS ironlsteelM miscellaneousmineral processing plants1 Mineral production in Illinois and mineral-processing plants.1a*MKALBI K A N E 1 [email protected]@ coalH oil and gasA [email protected] sand and gravel[I7 fluorspar, metals, bariteA claypeatf tripoliLAKE
of the reported value; crude minerals processed and manufactured minerals accounted for theremaining 10.3 percent. The leading commodie coal and oil, followed byindustrial and construction materials (table 1;egin on page 22).lllinois produced 5.8 percent of the tonnage and about 7.5 percent of the value of the coalproduced nationally. The state continued to lead the nation in the production of fluorspar, industrial sand, and tripoli. Production of stone and sand and gravel were 5.0 and 4.1 percent of thenational total, respectively (table 2).The value of commodities mined in Illinois in 19 9 was 2,550.9 million, an increase of 2.4 percent from 1988. Mineral fuels (coal, crude oil, and natural gas) accounted for 81.5 percent ofthe total. Industrial and construction materials such as clay, fluorspar, sand and gravel, stone,and tripoli accounted for 18.2 percent. The remaining 0.3 percent came from metals, such aslead, zinc, and silver, and from other minerals, such as peat and gemstones.In 1989, mineral extraction was reported by 98 of the 11)2 counties in lllinois (table 3, fig. 1).Only Iroquois, Mercer, Pope, and Stark Counties had no reported mineral extraction. Perry andFranklin Counties, major producers of coal and crude oil, accounted for 11.1 and 8.0 percent ofthe state's total value of minerals produced, respectively.Figures for total reported value of processed minerals in 1989 are incomplete. The total includes only expanded perlite, sulfur, calcined gypsum, and exfoliated vermiculite. Minerals notincluded on this list, but processed in the state, include natural gas liquids, iron-oxide pigments,crude iodine, ground barite, bismuth, columbium, tantalum, and primary and secondary slabzinc.Manufactured mineral products in Illinois, primarily from minerals mined within the state, included cement (portland and masonry), coke, clay products, lime, and glass. The value of salesof portland cement increased 15.2 percent; masonry cement declined 27.6 percent. Lime production was up 4.2 percent and its value 5.5 percent. Clay products decreased 10.4 percent invalue. Figures are no longer available for coke and glass.The Illinois Department of Labor reported a 3-percent increase in employment in the state'smineral industries, from 117,000 workers in 1988 to 120,500 workers in 1989. Jobs in mining,quarrying, and oil and gas extraction continued a downward trend, decreasing 6.2 percent from21,100 workers in 1988 to 19,800 in 1989. However, as was the case in 1988, this was compensated for by an increase in employment in mineral processing, from 61,300 to 63,800persons, and in the manufactured mineral sector from 34,600 to 36,900 persons (table 4).Mineral shipments are a large part of the Illinois 'transportation industry. Stone and sand andgravel are usually shipped by truck, since these products are used primarily near the quarries.Coal is primarily shipped by rail, barge, or raillbarge combination; only about 5 percent of thecoal was moved to mine-mouth, electricity-generating plants by conveyor belt. Crude oil andnatural gas are mainly transported by pipeline. Other materials, such as fluorspar and clayproducts, were skipped by rail, truck, and barge. Pig iron and coke are generally used on siteby integrated mills.
coal0IIIIIigwe 2 Energy used in Illinois, 1960-1989.e state's consumption of mineral commodities in 1989 was about 5the nation's total, or about the same proportion as Illinois' share of the total US. pphysical units, Illinois' mineral consumption varied fless than 1 percent sf thekerosene) to almost 16 percent (for zinc) (table 5).high zinc consumption ref1status as a major manufacturing state.The state's energy consumption in 1989 was estimated at 3.the U. S. total), slightly lower than 1988 (table 6). Fossil fuelsI products, 30state's energy needs: 27 percent bypercent by coal (fig. 2). Illinois consutrillion Btu ofin 1989, comparedwith 743 trillion Btu in 1988. In 1988 for the first time in Illinois, consumption of nucleargenerated energy exceeded the amount produced by coal.
FuelsKentucky, Westtotal US. coal p1 percent less than 1988 (table 7the 28.55 per ton in 1988. Coal production incrTwenty-one counties produceCounties together accounted forCounty was again the state's top producer, contribuin the state. Approximately 98 percent of its coal caduced more than 56 percent of tabout 11 percent of the surface-rnined coal. Franklin Cunderground, contributed about 19 percent of the undection total. Saline andMC HENRYHENRYBUREAUGRUHDYIllinois coal production in 1989.LAKEWIL
Randolph Counties each added approximately 12 percent of the underground production. Othercounties contributing substantially to underground coal production were Jefferson with about 9percent and Wabash with more than 7 percent. Approximately 67 percent of the state's totalproduction came from underground and about 33 percent came from surface mines (fig. 4).The number of coal mines operating in Illinois has been steadily declining since the early1900s. There were 920 mines in 1900. By the 1950s, approximately 200 mines were in operation. A further rapid decline to about 60 mines had occurred by 1970. In the latter half of the1970s, the number of mines increased to about 70 as new mines opened after the first oil-priceshock of 1974. Demand for coal did not increase, however, and the number of mines againdropped. By 1989, only 42 mines remained in operation: 27 underground and 15 surface mines(fig. 5).The proportions of underground- and surface-mined coal have reversed in Illinois in the last20 years as a result of changing economic and geologic conditions. This trend toward increased underground mining is expected to continue as surface-minable resources are depleted. Although part of the reason for reduced production from surface mines is the limitedavailability of surface-minable coal reserves, the cost of reclamation also contributes to thetrend. Conversely, increased production from underground mines coupled with high-extractionmining techniques leads to ground subsidence and its attendant mitigation costs.Illinois mines have produced about 5.38 billion tons of coal since 1833 (table 8). Surfacemines operating since 1911 have accounted for 1.27 billion tons or 23.7 percent of total. Theaverage output per underground mine reached a peak of 1.52 million tons in 1975; since thattime, average output has fluctuated between 0.9 and 1.48 million tons per year. In 1989, thesurface mined0IIIIII1970197519801985Figure 4 Trends in coal production in Illinois.195519601965Figure 5 Trends in the number of mines in Illinois.1989
h. The average surfaceaverage output was 1.5 million tons, 1.3 peed about 10 percent inmine output, which had beens in 1989 (table 9).1985, but has been incre1 coal mining companiesThe trend in Illinois isd Ben, Arch of Illinois,in Illinois in 1989, the top five companiese 10). The share of theand AMAX-produced about 62 percent ofmparison, the U.S. coaltop five companies did not change significpanies produced 24.5mining industry is much less conceIllinois companies, Peabody and Consolidation, alsopercent of the national total. The toare the top two companies in the United States.In 1989 employment in Illinois coal mines decreased 3.6percent to 11,I05 from 11,514 in 1988 (table 9). Employment i 'the mines has declined about40 percent from since the 1979 high of 18,499. Undergd-mine employment decreased 1.1ages rose to 18.59percent, and surface-mine employment by 11.5 percein 1989, up from 18.21 in 1988 (table 4). The average number of hours worked weeklyincreased to 42.7 from 39.7 in 1988.MineProductivity is calculatverage production per minera are used in calculatinge length of a miner's shper hourg operations in 1989 inpercentage changes. The labor productivity oftons. The peak level was 22.9 tons increased to 20.35 tons from the previous year's8.4 percent to 31.6 tons from 26.7 tons in1969. In surface mines, labor productivity incrlthough the average productivity levels1988. The peak year was 1967 with 41.6 tonwhole have surpassed their past peaksin underground and surf e mines for the nreached in 1969 and 19 , the productivity levels in Illinois mines have yet to return to the pastpeak levels. In fact, as figure 6 indicates, productivity of Illinois un erground mines in 1989 wassurpassed by the U.S. average for the first time, and the gap between the U.S. and Illinoissurface-mine productivity has been widening since about 1975. This difference in mine laborproductivity at the national versus state level indicates that the economic competitiveness oflllinois coal has declined during the 1980s.percent from 28.55 toThe average price (f.0.b. ine) of Illinois coal droin Illinois was 28.66 28.17 per ton (table 7). The averageper ton, a 3.2-percent decrease from 1988, and the price of surface-mined coal was 27.20 perTrends in the productivity of coal mining, 1965-1989.
lllinois coal was used in 23 states to generate electricity, manufacture coke,and supply energy for other industries. About 90 percent of lllinois coal was sold to electricutility plants, 3 percent to plants manufacturing metallurgical coke, and 7 percent to industrialplants and retail dealers in 1989 (table 11). Shipments to electric utilities increased about 2percent from 52.3 million tons in 1988 to 53.4 million tons in 1989, but only about 28 percentwas shipped within the state. Out-of-state shi ents to utilities increased about 1 percent; 34percent of the out-of-state shipments went tosouri, 24 percent to Georgia and Florida, and21 percent to Indiana.About 72 percent of lllinois coal used in making coke was shipped to coking plants innorthwestern Indiana and the remainder was consumed within the state. Of the lllinois coalused for other industrial act ities, about 57 percent was consum within the state, and about18 percent was shipped to issouri, 8 percent each to Iowa and isconsin, and 4 percent toIndiana.n Coal was shipped from mines to the consumer by rail, barge, and truck.Barge or raillbarge combination has been gaining importance in lllinois as transportation costsbecome an important aspect of price competition. lllinois coal depends primarily on out-of-statemarkets and transportation costs must be kept low to compete with other coals.RailBarge or rail/barge3Local trade and truck4Rail Lineslllinois Central GulfUnion PacificNorfolk-SouthernC hicago-NorthwesternBurlington NorthernOthersTotal rail' Tonnagesdo not total because part of the rail tonnage is shown in the combined railhargecategory, and some was shipped from inventory.*Revised.Part of this coal sent from mine to barge-loading facility by conveyor belt.Part of this coal was sent by truck to barge.Source: lllinois Department of Mines and Minerals.tion lllinois coal consumption decreased for the third consecutive year, decliningercent to 30.1 million tons (table 12). After reaching a high of 20.8 million tons in1984, total annual coal shipments from lllinois mines to lllinois markets have declined by 16percent. The decline was the result of increased use of nuclear ergy. From 1984 to 1989,total coal consumed by Illinois electric utilities declined about 2rcent, 6 percent in the pastyear alone. Coking-coal consumption incre