UXO Incident Report (Revision 1)

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UXO INCIDENT REPORT(Revision 1)forU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Solid WastePermits and State Programs DivisionContract No. 68-W-98-215Work Assignment No. 1byDPRA Incorporated1300 North 17th StreetSuite 950Arlington, Virginia 22209Completed September 30, 2001

TABLE OF CONTENTSI. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1II. RESULTS OF SEARCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3A. Summary Results of Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4B. Primary Sources: Federally-Maintained Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39B.1 The Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB) . . . . . . . . 39B.2 Bureau Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (ATF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41C. Primary Sources: Search Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42C.1 Westlaw Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42C.2 LEXIS/NEXIS Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43C.3 EBSCOhost Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43C.4 Internet Search Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44IV. ADDITIONAL SOURCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45A. U.S. Army Technical Center for Explosives Safety (USATCES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45B. Unexploded Ordnance Center of Expertise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45C. U.S. Army Claims Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47D. Federal Bureau of Investigation UXO Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47E. Naval Ordnance Explosives Division, Naval Ordnance Station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47F. Joint UXO Command Center . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47G. 52nd Ordnance Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48H. National Guard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48I. Langley Air Force Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48J. Bureau of Land Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48K. Sentimental Journey to Southwest Proving Ground . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49V. CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50VI. REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52ACRONYMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54APPENDIX A: Search Methodology and DesignAPPENDIX B: Civilian UXO Incidents: Recycling Facilities or Scrap YardsAPPENDIX C: Civilian UXO Incidents: Non-Scrap Yard Incidents with ExplosionsAPPENDIX D: Civilian UXO Incidents: Non-Scrap Yard Incidents with No ExplosionsAPPENDIX E: Civilian UXO Incidents: Non-Scrap Yard Incidents with Explosion DataUnavailableAPPENDIX F: Civilian UXO Incidents: Buried UXOAPPENDIX G: Military or Military Contractor UXO IncidentsAPPENDIX H: DDESB Data TablesAPPENDIX I: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms TablesAPPENDIX J: Westlaw Search ResultsAPPENDIX K: NEXIS Search ResultsAPPENDIX L: EBSCHOHost Search ResultsAPPENDIX M: Internet Search Results

I. INTRODUCTIONThe U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) tasked DPRA Inc. to conduct an investigationto identify cases where incidents associated with unexploded ordnance (UXO), chemicalmunitions/agents, or other military munitions of World War I or later vintage have resulted indeath or injury to civilians (the general public) in the United States. In particular, DPRA focusedon cases where firing ranges/buried munitions were the source of the munitions. As part of thiseffort, DPRA conducted a literature search (via LEXIS/NEXIS and other services) and anInternet search to identify. In addition, DPRA contacted United States Department of Defense(DoD) and other Federal government organizations to access hard copy files and/or databasescontaining the above information and extract that information where possible into onecomprehensive data set of cases.DPRA contacted the following organizations/data sources to gather a comprehensive list ofpertinent incidents: Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB) in Alexandria, VirginiaU.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) in Washington, D.C.Federal Bureau of InvestigationUXO Center of Excellence in Huntsville, AlabamaU.S. Army Technical Center for Explosives Safety (USATCES) in McAlester, OklahomaNaval Explosives Ordnance Division at the Naval Ordnance Station in Indian Head,MarylandJoint UXO Command Center in Fort Belvoir, Virginia52nd Ordnance Group in Atlanta, GeorgiaU.S. Army Claims Center in Fort Meade, MarylandU.S. National GuardLangley Air Force BaseSouthwest Proving Ground, Hope, ArkansasInternet/search engine materialTwo organizations proved to maintain the most organized, accessible data: the DDESB inAlexandria, Virginia and the ATF, in Washington, D.C. These organizations served as theprimary resources for this report. Many of the other organizations contacted reportedly either didnot maintain such data at all or submitted all such data to DDESB. Therefore, theseorganizations, along with the Internet and other search engines are considered at best secondaryresources.Detailed information about all civilian UXO incidents has been organized into a single mastertable (see Section II, Table 3), that presents information on each of the 126 documented civilianUXO incidents. In addition, the report organizes those UXO incidents with commoncharacteristics into several other tables (Appendices B through G), each of which contains a1

subset of the incidents included in the master table. A set of summary tables (see Section II,Tables 1 and 2) provides counts of civilian UXO incidents with various characteristics. Thesummary tables provide cumulative information about the number of incidents that Resulted in injuries or fatalitiesTook place at recycling facilitiesResulted in explosions and did not result in explosionsInvolved buried UXOInvolved adults and childrenTook place in each stateDetailed information about the incidents in most of the categories in the summary tables isprinted together in Appendices C through F. Although the primary purpose of the search of DoDrecords and other sources was to identify civilian UXO incidents, DPRA also collectedinformation reviewed during the search that concerned military (or military contractor) UXOincidents, and this information is also presented in a summary table. Detailed information aboutthe military UXO incidents are contained in Appendix G.2

II. RESULTS OF SEARCHThe DPRA search resulted in the identification of 126 documented UXO incidents across theUnited States where civilians were injured or killed by contact with UXO found on both formerand active bombing/artillery ranges, proving grounds, and other military activities in the UnitedStates. The search attempted to identify all such incidents from World War I (circa 1918) to thepresent.EPA requested that DPRA identify the following data points for each UXO ex:Age:Explosion/Identification:Munition Description:Party Size:Type:Activity:Date of incidentNumber of fatalitiesNumber of injuriesMale or femaleAge of people in partyWas there an explosion or was UXO/agent simply foundDescription of munition/agentNumber of people in partyType of munition involvedType of activity taking place when UXO was found/exploded (e.g.,utility excavation)Type of site restrictions/access controls (e.g., fencing)Owner of property at time of the incidentWhat is the present use of the propertyDescription of incidentDescription of damageName of facility/site, state, and town/countyDid the incident occur at a FUDS, BRAC facility, active facility, oroff-baseIf the land is a former military installation, what service operatedthe siteWhat is the source of the reported dataAccess Controls:Ownership at Incident:Present Use:Abstract:Damage:Location:Installation Type:Service:Source:The summary results of this search are presented in Section A of this discussion. DDESB andATF records provided most of the data. However, a few of the incidents were obtained fromother sources. Detailed findings from both primary and secondary sources are presented in thediscussion below in Sections B and C. A detailed description of the search methodology anddesign can be found in Appendix A.3

UXO Incident CasesA. Summary Results of SearchTable 1 – Summary of UXO Incidents presents summary tables that sort the documentedincident data into a few selected categories/types of UXO incidents. Specifically, the summarytables provide totals for the following: Total number of civilian UXO incidentsCivilian UXO incidents at both recycling and non-recycling facilitiesCivilian UXO incidents involving adults vs. minorsNumber of UXO incidents resulting from buried UXOUXO incidents involving military or military contractor personnelTable 2 -- Summary of UXO Incidents by State, presents the total number of civilian UXOincidents documented for each state. Specific information on each of the documented incidentsis presented in Table 3 – Civilian UXO Incidents.4

UXO Incident CasesTable 1: Summary of UXO IncidentsTotal Number of Civilian UXO IncidentsTotalIncidentsIncidents withFatalities?Number ofFatalities?Incidents with Injuries ?Number ofInjuries ?Incidents withoutFatalities or InjuriesIncidents with Fatality or InjuryData Unavailable1263967641373219Civilian UXO Incidents: Recycling Facilities vs. Non-Recycling FacilitiesNumber ofIncidentsIncidents withFatalities?Number ofFatalities ?Incidents withInjuries ?Number ofInjuries?Incidents withoutFatalities or InjuriesIncidents with Fatality orInjury Data UnavailableRecycling Facilities10?5105910Non-RecyclingFacility: Explosion7332535512162Non-RecyclingFacility: NoExplosion2713?24?240Non-RecyclingFacility: ExplosionData Unavailable1600001151263866611343217Totals? Some incidents resulted in both injury and fatality. Consequently, some incidents are counted in both the fatality and injury columns.?Fatalities are not counted as injuries.? Injury or fatality resulting from the release of a chemical agent without explosion.? There was an explosion at each Scrap Yard or Recycling Plant for which detailed data was obtained.5

UXO Incident CasesCivilian UXO Incidents: Adults vs. MinorsNumber ofIncidentsIncidents withFatalities?Number ofFatalities ?Incidents withInjuries ?Number ofInjuries?Incidents withoutFatalities or InjuriesIncidents with Fatality or InjuryData oth Adult alsNumber of Buried UXO IncidentsTotal IncidentsIncidentswithFatalities?Number ofFatalities?IncidentswithInjuries ?Number ofInjuries ?Incidents without Fatalities or InjuriesIncidents with Fatality or InjuryData Unavailable9000080Military or Military Contractor UXO IncidentsMilitary or MilitaryContractorsNumber ofIncidentsIncidents withFatalities?Number ofFatalities ?Incidents withInjuries ?Number ofInjuries?Incidents withoutFatalities or InjuriesIncidents with Fatality orInjury Data Unavailable7625605827091? Some incidents resulted in both injury and fatality. Consequently, some incidents are counted in both the fatality and injury columns.?Fatalities are not counted as injuries.? Injury or fatality resulting from the release of a chemical agent without explosion.? There was an explosion at each Scrap Yard or Recycling Plant for which detailed data was obtained.6

UXO Incident CasesTable 2: Number of Civilian UXO Incidents per Stateor TerritoryStateATF DatabaseUXO 1NC1164? Some incidents resulted in both injury and fatality. Consequently, some incidents are counted in both the fatality and injury columns.? Fatalities are not counted as injuries.? Injury or fatality resulting from the release of a chemical agent without explosion.? There was an explosion at each Scrap Yard or Recycling Plant for which detailed data was obtained.7

Table 2: Number of Civilian UXO Incidents per Stateor TerritoryStateATF DatabaseUXO otalState UnknownTotal8

Table 3: Civilian UXO RTYEXPorFNDType ofInstallationRangeAccessActivityOwner @Time of Inc.PresentUseType ofMunitionClearanceAbstract / DamageSERVICESOURCEJunk YardBirmingham,ALDCMCDDESBSalvage YardDCMCDDESBTrumbellAsphaltCompanyDCMCDDESBFuel & apCopperWhile bailing scrap copper in a junk yard,two were killed when the bailing machinedetonated. Examination indicated thelikely presence of nitrocellulose in thebailing machine scrap.Destroyed bailing machine.x20EXPUXOOff-baseLiveRoundTwo men placed steel scrap into openhearth furnace for remelting. Theyaccidentall