UMTSAbout the TutorialThe Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), based on the GSM standards,is a mobile cellular system of third generation that is maintained by 3GPP (3 rd GenerationPartnership Project). It specifies a complete network system and the technologydescribed in it is popularly referred as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA).This tutorial starts off with a brief introduction to the history of mobile communicationand cellular concepts and gradually moves on to explain the basics of GSM, GPRS, andEDGE, before getting into the concepts of UMTS.AudienceThis tutorial is prepared for beginners to help them understand the basic-to-advancedconcepts related to UMTS.PrerequisitesYou need to have a basic understanding of various telecom terminologies to understandthe topics covered in this tutorial.Copyright & Disclaimer Copyright 2018 by Tutorials Point (I) Pvt. Ltd.All the content and graphics published in this e-book are the property of Tutorials Point(I) Pvt. Ltd. The user of this e-book is prohibited to reuse, retain, copy, distribute orrepublish any contents or a part of contents of this e-book in any manner without writtenconsent of the publisher.We strive to update the contents of our website and tutorials as timely and as preciselyas possible, however, the contents may contain inaccuracies or errors. Tutorials Point (I)Pvt. Ltd. provides no guarantee regarding the accuracy, timeliness or completeness ofour website or its contents including this tutorial. If you discover any errors on ourwebsite or in this tutorial, please notify us at [email protected]
UMTSTable of ContentsAbout the Tutorial . iAudience . iPrerequisites . iCopyright & Disclaimer. iTable of Contents . ii1.HISTORY OF MOBILE COMMUNICATION . 1Cellular Era . 1First Generation Systems . 2History of GSM . 32.CELLULAR CONCEPTS – INTRODUCTION . 4Frequency Scarcity Problem . 4Cellular Approach . 4Operating Environment . 63.CELLULAR CONCEPTS – GSM ARCHITECTURE . 11Mobile Switching Center . 11Home Location Register (HLR) . 12Visitor Location Register (VLR) . 12Equipment Identity Register . 12Authentication Centre . 13Operation and Maintenance Centre (OMC) . 13Base Station System (BSS) . 13Base Transceiver Station (BTS) . 13Base Station Controller . 14Mobile Station . 14ii
UMTSTranscoders. 15Other Network Elements. 154.CELLULAR CONCEPTS – GSM RADIO LINK . 17Rayleigh Fading . 17Coverage Extension . 18Coding . 18Burst Formatting . 18Speech Properties . 18Speech Coding Techniques . 19Special Features of GSM . 21Authentication . 22Encryption/Ciphering . 23Time Slot Staggering. 24Timing Advance . 255.CELLULAR CONCEPTS – MOBILITY MANAGEMENT . 26Cell Selection Criteria . 26Call to an Active Mobile Station . 26Location Update . 27Network Configuration. 28Location Area . 28Location Area Identity . 29Location Area Identity Format. 29Location Related Databases . 30Types of Identification Numbers . 30Location Update Scenario . 32Hand Over . 35iii
UMTSHand Over Types . 356.CELLULAR CONCEPTS – GPRS ARCHITECTURE . 37General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) . 37Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) Functions . 38Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) Functions . 38Upgradation of Equipment from GSM to GPRS. 38Location Information – GSM Service Area Hierarchy . 397.CELLULAR CONCEPTS – EDGE . 40Upgradation to EDGE . 40Benefits of EDGE . 40What EDGE Would Mean to Subscribers . 408.UMTS – A NEW NETWORK . 41Network Evolution . 419.UMTS – WCDMA TECHNOLOGY . 43WCDMA-3G . 44Sub-systems of 3G Network . 4410. UMTS – HSPA STANDARDIZATION . 4511. UMTS – OBJECTIVES . 47UMTS – Radio Interface and Radio Network Aspects . 47UMTS – All IP Vision . 47UMTS – Requirements of the New Architecture . 47UMTS – Security and Privacy . 4812. UMTS – AUTHENTICATION . 49UMTS Subscriber to UMTS Network . 49iv
UMTSUMTS Subscriber to GSM Base Station . 5013. UMTS – SUCCESS AND LIMITATIONS . 5114. UMTS – 3GPP . 523rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) . 523rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) . 53Architecture of the 3GPP System . 5315. UMTS – RADIO ACCESS NETWORK . 5416. UMTS – EVOLVED PACKET CORE NETWORK . 55EPC for 3GPP access in non-roaming . 55EPC for 3GPP Access in Roaming . 5617. UMTS – PROTOCOL ENVIRONMENT . 59GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) . 59Control Plane of GPRS Tunneling Protocol. 59Enhanced GTPv1-U .