Wireless Tutorial - WiFi, 4G, 3G, White Spaces And Beyond

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Wireless TutorialWi-Fi, 3G, 4G, White Spacesand Beyond

Agenda10:30 – 12:00 noonOur G-enealogy – History and Evolution ofMobile RadioLunch1:0000 – 2:002 002:00 – 2:45The IEEE’s Wireless Ethernet KeepsGoing and Growing4G Tutorial: Vive la Différence?Break3:00 – 3:45Mobile Broadband - New Applications andNew Business ModelsBreak4:00 – 4:45Tutorial: White Spaces and Beyondwww.octoscope.com

MIMOOFDM OFDMAWireeless capaccity / throuughput4G4IEEE 8023G2GLTEWiMAXWiWii-FiiUMTS/HSxPACDMAGSMAMPSFirst cellphones19701980199020002010www.octoscope.com

Hit11Historyoff IEEE 802802.111989: FCC authorizes ISM bands(Industrial, Scientific and Medical)900 MHz, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz1990: IEEE beginsgwork on 802.111994: 2.4 GHz products beginshipping1997: 802.11 standard approved1998: FCC authorizes the UNII(Unlicensed National InformationInfrastructure) Band - 5 GHz1999: 802.11a, b ratified2003: 802.11g ratified2006: 802.11n2006802 11n draftd aft 2 certificationce tification bybthe Wi-Fi Alliance begins20?: 802.11 ac/ad: 1 Gbps Wi-Fi802 11 has pioneered802.11commercial deployment ofOFDM and MIMO – keywireless signalingtechnologies todaywww.octoscope.com

History of 802.161998: IEEE formed 802.16 WGStarted with 10–66 GHz band; latermodified to work in 2–11GHz to enableNLOS (non-line of site)2004: IEEE 802.16‐2004dFixed operation standard ratified2005: 802.16-2005e802 16-2005eFrom OFDM to OFDMAorthogonal frequency division multiplexingorthogonal frequency division multiple accessMobility and scalability in 2–6 GHzLatest: P802.16Rev2/D8 draftFuture: 802.16m – next generationSDD (system definition document)SRD ((systemyrequirementsqdocument))www.octoscope.com

ITU T FrameworkITU-TFkPervasive connectivityWLAN - WMAN - WWANITU-T – United NationsITUtelecommunications standardsorganizationAccepts detailed standardscontributions from 3GPP, IEEEand other groupsIEEE 802.11 – WLAN (wirelesslocal area network))IEEE 802.16 – WMAN (wirelessmetropolitan area network)3GPP – WBA (wirelessbroadband access)www.octoscope.com

ITU International MobileTelecommunicationsIMT 2000IMT-2000Global standard for third generation (3G) wireless communicationsProvides a framework for worldwide wireless access by linking the diversesystems of terrestrial and satellite based networks.Data rateate limit is appapproximatelyo imatel 30 MbpsDetailed specifications contributed by 3GPP, 3GPP2, ETSI and othersIMT-AdvancedNew generation framework for mobile communication systems beyondIMT-2000 with deployment around 2010 to 2015Data rates to reach around 100 Mbps for high mobility and 1 Gbps fornomadic networks (i.e. WLANs)IEEE 802.16m802 16m working to define the high mobility interfaceIEEE 802.11ac and 802.11ad VHT (very high throughput) working todefine the nomadic interfacewww.octoscope.com

ITU Frequency Bands for IMT Advanced450-470450470 MHz698-960 MHz1710 2025 MHz1710-2025MH2110-2200 MHz2300-2400 MHz2500-2690500 690 MHzTDDTime division duplexFDDFrequency division duplex(full and half duplex)H-FDDF-FDD3400-3600 MHzwww.octoscope.com

Personal802.15.3Bluetooth60 GHzUWBGSM, CDMA,UMTS .16 WiMAXwww.octoscope.com

WirelessWstaandards doominate thhe work of IEEE 8002IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee (LMSC)802.1 Higher Layer LAN Protocols802.3 Ethernet802.11 Wireless LAN802.15 Wireless Personal Area Network802.16 Broadband Wireless Access802.17 Resilient Packet Ring802.18 Radio Regulatory TAG (technical advisory group)802.19 Coexistence TAG802.21 Media Independent Handoff802.22 Wireless Regional Area Networks802 TV White Spaces Study Groupwww.octoscope.com

IEEE 802.11802 11 Active Task GroupsTGn – High ThroughputTGp – Wireless Access Vehicular Environment (WAVE/DSRC)TGs – ESS Mesh NetworkingTGT – IEEE 802 PerformanceTGu – InterWorking with External NetworksTGv – Wireless Network ManagementTGw – Protected ManagementgFramesTGy – 3650-3700 MHz Operation in USATGz – Direct Link SetupTGaa – Robust streaming of AV Transport StreamsTGac – VHTL6 (very high throughput 6 GHz)TGad – VHT 60 ope.com

Draft 802.11n802 11n vs.vs Legacy ThroughputPerformance

802 11n Throughput Enhancements802.11n802.11n entover legacySpatial multiplexingWith 2 spatial streams throughput canbe double that of a single stream.100%40 MHz channelwidthDoubling the channel width over thelegacy 20 MHz channel can double thethroughput.100%With 52 data sub-carriers vs. 48 for thelegacy networksnetworks, the highest data rateMore efficient OFDMper stream is 65 Mbps vs. the802.11a/g 54 Mbps20%Shorter GIThe short GI of 400 ns allowed by802 11 reduces802.11ndththe symbolb l titime ffrom4 microseconds to 3.6 microsecondsincreasing the symbol rate by 10%.10%Frame aggregationgg gand Block ACK64k bytes AA-MPDU;MPDU; 8k bytes AA-MSDUMSDUUp to 100%

IEEE 802.11a,b,g,n802 11a b g n20 MHz Channel1 stream2 streams40 MHz Channel1 stream2 streamsD t RDataRate,t iin MbMbps802.11b2.4 GHz1, 2, 5.5, 11802.11a5 GHz6, 9, 12, 18, 24,36, 48, 54802.11g2.4 GHz1, 2, 6, 9, 12,18, 24, 36, 48,54802.11nGI[1] 800ns2.4 GHz6.5, 13, 19.5,26, 39, 52,58.5, 6513, 26, 39, 52,78, 104, 117,130802.11nGI[1] 800ns5 GHz6.5, 13, 19.5,26, 39, 52,58.5, 6513, 26, 39, 52,78, 104, 117,13013.5, 27, 40.5,54, 81, 108,121.5, 13527, 54, 81, 108,162, 216, 243,270802.11n, GI 400ns2.4 and 5 GHz7.2, 14.4, 21.7,28 9 4328.9,43.3,357.8, 65, 72.214.4, 28.9,43.3, 57.8,86.7, 115.6,130, 144.415, 30, 45, 60,90 12090,120, 135135,15030, 60, 90, 120,180 240180,240, 270270,300GI Guard Interval,, periodpwithin an OFDMsymbol allocated to letting the signal settle prior totransmitting the next symbol. Legacy 802.11a/b/gdevices use 800ns GI. GI of 400ns is optional for802.11n.[1,]www.octoscope.com

MIMO Radio Systems2x3TXRXData is organized into spatial streams that are transmittedsimultaneously - This is known as Spatial MultiplexingSISO: Single-Input/Single-Output; MIMO: Multi-Input/MultiOutput; SIMO: Single-Input/Multi-Output;l/ lMISOThere’s a propagation path between each transmit andreceive antenna ((a “MIMO path”)p)N x M MIMO ( e.g. “4x4”, “2x2”, “2x3”)N transmit antennasM receivei antennastTotal of N x M pathswww.octoscope.com15

Mobile reflectorclustersMobile deviceMIMO transmission usesmultipath to send twoor more streamswww.octoscope.com

IIndoordMIMO Mlti th ChMultipathChannellMultipath reflectionscome in “clusters”Reflections in a clusterarrivei att a receiveriallllfrom the same generaldirectionStatistics of clusters arekey to MIMO systemoperationtiReflectorMovingo g reflectore ec oRxDirect rayWallReflectorTx802.11n developed 6models: A through Fwww.octoscope.com17

Example 2x2 MIMO Channel Model2H1H21Time-varying FIR filter weightsSpatially correlated: H11 correlated with H12, etc., according to antennaspacing and cluster statisticsTime correlated according to the Doppler modelwww.octoscope.com

MIMO Channel EmulationDSPUdtUp-downconverters4 x 4 MIMO paths to support 802.11nWiMAX requireseq i es 2 x 2802.11n and ITU M.1225 channel modelsBidirectionality required to support beamformingwww.octoscope.com

M i i lMMunicipalMultipathlti th EEnvironmentitwww.octoscope.com

Outdoor Multipath EnvironmentBase Station(BS)picocellill radius:dir 100 mmicro: 100 m r 1 000 mmacro: r 1 000 mOne or two dominant paths in outdoorenvironments – fewer paths and lessscattering than indoorswww.octoscope.com

802 11 Ch802.11nChannell MModelsd lParametersAvg 1st Wall Distance (m)RMS Delay Spread (ns)Maximum Delay (ns)Number of TapsNumber of 3E20100730184F301501050186Delay spread is a function of the size of the modeled environmentNumber of clusters represents number of independent propagationpaths modeledDoppler spectrum assumes reflectors moving in environment at 1.2km/h, which corresponds to about 6 Hz in 5 GHz band, 3 Hz in 2.4GHz bandwww.octoscope.com

ITU MIMO Channel Models – For BWAWiMAX systemypperformancefsimulations are based on ITU modelsChannel ModelPath 1Path 2Path 3Path 4Path 5Path 6ITU Pedestrian B( l ti fifigures))(relative0 dB0 ns-0.9 dB200 ns-4.9 dB800 ns-8.0 dB1200 ns-7.8 dB2300 ns-23.9 dB3700 nsITU Vehicular A(relative figures)0 dB0 ns-1.0 dB310 ns-9.0 dB710 ns-10.0 dB1090 ns-15.0 dB1730 ns-20.0 dB2510 nsChannel ModelSpeedProbabilityITU Pedestrian B3 km/hr60%ITU VehicularV hi l A30 km/hrk /h30%120 km/hr10%BWA Broadband Wireless Accesswww.octoscope.com

Lihtl Rl t dBd ffor 80211 80216LightlyRegulatedBand802.11,802.16March 2005 FCC offered50 MHzMH 3650 tot 3700MHz for contention-basedprotocol802.11y meets FCCrequirement; 802.16h isworking to comply21st century regulationgeared for digitalcommunicationsmultiple services to sharethe band in an orderly way 300 Million licensesone for every person orcompany 300 per license for 10 years Registered stations (basestations): 1 W/MHz,W/MHz 15 km Unregistered stations(handsets, laptops): 40mW/MHz, 1-1.5 kmwww.octoscope.com

IEEE 802.11802 11 TimelineTGkTGmaPart 00120022003802.11-1999IEEE Standard April 199920042005200620072008802.11-2007IEEE Standard20092010June2007802.11-19978IEEE Standard July 1997www.octoscope.com

Making 802.11 Enterprise-grade802.11rFast Roaming releasedld802.11kRadio Resource Measurement released802.11vWireless Network Managementwww.octoscope.com

80211 Fiti (Ri )802.11rFastt TTransition(Roaming)Needed by voice applicationsBasic methodology involvespropagating authenticationinformation for connectedstations through the ‘mobilitydomain’ to eliminate the needfor re-authentication uponstation transition from one APto anotherThe station preparing the roamcan setupt ththe ttargett AP ttominimize the actual transitiontimewww.octoscope.com

802.11k Radio Resource MeasurementIImpetust ffor 802802.11k11k came fromftheth EnterprisesE tithatth tneeded to manage their WLANs from a central point802.11k makes a centralized network managementsystem by providing layer 2 mechanisms forDiscovering network topologyMonitoring WLAN devices, their receive power levels, PHYconfiguration and network activityCan be used to assists 802.11r Fast Transition (roaming)protocol with handoff decisions based on the loading ofthe infrastructure, but 802.11v is more focused on loadbalancingwww.octoscope.com

802.11v Wireless Network ManagementTGv’s charter is to build on the networkmeasurement mechanisms defined by TGk andintroduce network management functions toprovide Enterprises with centralized networkmanagement and load balancing capabilities.Major goals: manageability, improvedpower efficiency and interferenceavoidanceDefinesDfia protocoltl ffor requestingti andd reportingtilocation capabilityLocation information may be CIVIC (streetaddress) or GEO (longitude, latitude coordinates)For the handset, TGv may enable awareness ofAP e911 capabilities while the handset is insleep mode; this work has common groundwith TGuwww.octoscope.com

802.11v Improves Power EfficiencyTGv defines FBMS (flexible broadcastmulticast service) - the mechanism to letdevices extend their sleep periodDevices can specifying the wake upinterval to be longer than a single DTIM(delivery traffic indication message). Thisconsolidates traffic receive/transmitintervals and extends battery life ofhandsets.www.octoscope.com

Making Wi-Fi Carrier-grade?802.11u - InterWorking with ExternalNetworksMain goal is to enable Interworking withexternal networks, including other 802 basednetworks such as 802.16 and 802.3 and3GPP based IMS networksMManagenetworkk discovery,diemergency callllsupport (e911), roaming, location andavailabilityThe network discovery capabilities give astation looking to connect information aboutnetworks in range, service providers,subscription status with service providers802.11u makes 802.11 networks morelik cellularlikell l networkstk wherehsuchhinformation is provided by theinfrastructurewww.octoscope.com

80211p Wireless Access Vehicular802.11pEnvironment (WAVE)Transportation communications systems under development byDepartment of Transportation (DoT)802.11p is the PHY in the Intelligent Transportation Systems(ITS)WAVE is also called DSRC (DedicatedShort Range Communications)WAVE/DSRC/is the method for vehicleto vehicle and vehicle to road-sideunit communications to support Public safetyCollision avoidanceTraffic awareness and managementTraveler informationToll booth paymentswww.octoscope.com

80211p Wireless Access Vehicular Environment (WAVE)802.11pOperatespin the5.9 GHzfrequency banddedicated by theFCC forWAVE/DSRCThis band fallsright above the802 11a band,802.11abandmaking itsupportable bytheh commerciali l802.11a chipsets

Wireless MeshWired connection to each AP802.11s802.16j (relay)802.16m (built(built-in meshing)802.15.5BWA backhaul meshMesh PortalTraditionalWLANWired linksMesh linksMeshCli t liClientlinkskwww.octoscope.com

IEEE 80211 Mh802.11sMeshWireless Distribution System withautomatic topology learning andwireless path configurationSelf-formingSelfforming, self-healingself healing,dynamic routing 32 nodes to make routingalgorithms computationallymanageableExtension of 802.11i security and802 11e QoS protocol to operate802.11ein a distributed rather thancentralized topologyMP (MeshPoint)P i t)Mesh Portalwww.octoscope.com

802 11s Mesh Enhanced Stations802.11sMultiple associationcapability reduces hopsbetween server andclient stationswww.octoscope.com

Fast Handoff in Dynamic MeshesTo support VoIP, 802.11s needs to incorporate the fasthandoff mechanisms defined in 802.11r.Enable stations to roam from one mesh AP to another withinapproximately 50 ms without noticeable degradation in thequality of a voice callIn a dynamic mesh (e.g. in vehicles) MPs may be roaming withrespectt tto otherth MPsMP andd theth 802.11s802 11