Creating Resilient Border Security Infrastructureand SystemsNeville CramerImmigration and Naturalization Service (retired)March 11, 20103:30 PM – 5:00 PMMeeting Room 16
Legal Immigration The single largest impediment tomaintaining or increasing legal immigrationto the U.S., is our inability andunwillingness to control illegal immigration.
IssuesPolicies and ProgramsComprehensive Immigration ReformBorder SecurityInterior Enforcement – E-VerifyRecommendations
Policies and Programs
Government “policies” andprogrammatic realities Government “policies” are only as goodas the programs, processes andprocedures used to implement them. Policies are mostly for media & publicconsumption. Programmatic successes and failures tellthe real story!
A New Way ForwardIn almost every instance, successful immigrationenforcement programs have been sabotaged and/oreliminated.Programs that have miserably failed to control illegalimmigration have consistently been funded and supportedby Congress, the media and immigration advocates.This must be changed!
Programs and New Technology There must be a much closer relationship between thescientific community, contractors, researchers, eachagency’s officer corps and policy makers. Without coordination of ALL parties, creating a resilientinfrastructure will be virtually impossible. Establishing the National Center for Border Security andImmigration (BORDERS) is a “first step” in the rightdirection.
The first Malaysian E-Passportwas introduced in March, 1999!Eleven years ago!
The E-Passport Biographic and biometric information isembedded on “write-once only” RFID chip. Allows for visual comparison of photo andbiographic information. Electronic comparison of fingerprints Currently the most secure system in theworld.
The E-Passport- KLIA, Malaysia
Passports & International TravelU.S. POLICY - To facilitate themovement of citizens and aliensacross our international borderswith professionalism and thehighest level of security possible.
The E-Passport Using the APIS System – (Automated PassengerInformation System) and, The fingerprints, photographs and biographicinformation on the E-Passport; U.S. Citizens returning home could be screened atcheck-in; Biometric (fingerprint) and biographic pre-arrivalchecks completed during flight; Automated inspection at arrival.
Advantages of all E-Passports Facilitate inspection and entry of citizens &foreign nationals Prevent use of multiple identities Detect imposters, criminals and terrorists Rapid Identification for law enforcement Eliminate waiting period for deportation traveldocuments Eliminate the need for airlines to capture andtransmit passenger data
A380 Airbus – An ImmigrationNightmare
The E-Passport In 2004, officials who had little or no experiencewith processing passengers at our internationalports of entry decided NOT to put fingerprints onour new E-Passports! Without the inclusion of fingerprints or anotherbiometric, every regular U.S. E-Passport issuedtoday puts us another 10 years behind in theproper use of this technology!
1986 Immigration Reform &Control Act 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act– Secure our borders– Employer sanctions to prevent hiring of illegalimmigrants– Amnesty for 2.8 million illegal immigrants
Comprehensive ImmigrationReform 2010 & beyond –– Secure our borders– Employer sanctions to prevent hiring of illegalimmigrants– Amnesty for millions of illegal immigrantsLOOK FAMILIAR?
Border Patrol Headquarters – Eagle Pass, Texas (1976)
The U.S. Border Patrol - Facts1978 – USBP had approximately 2,000 Border Patrol Agents andapproximately 2 million illegal immigrants were in the United States.2009 – 16,000 Border Patrol Agents and approximately 16 million illegalimmigrants in the U.S.By 2030 – 50,000 Border Patrol Agents and 50 million illegal immigrants.Over the last thirty years the Border Patrol’s size has increased tenfold,and over the exact same period the number of illegal immigrants in theU.S. has increased tenfold as well.Simply adding more Border Patrol Agents has never worked, yet everysingle piece of major immigration reform legislation has funding foradditional Border Patrol Agents!
The U.S. Border PatrolThose who support increased illegal immigrationhave always supported giving more resources tothe U.S. Border Patrol (as opposed tostrengthening interior enforcement.)WHY?Simply increasing the size of the Border Patrol hasnever worked and it never will.
U.S. Border Security The goal is to gain “operational control” ofour borders.
U.S. Border SecurityTechnology – more sensors, ground radar systems, camerasand barriers (in high traffic areas.)UAV’s (drones) & satellitesSignificant increase in DETENTION - detain most illegalimmigrants illegally crossing the border for 60 to 90 days.(Operation Streamline –Yuma, Arizona.)“Economics” is still the most powerful push factor creating illegalimmigration to the United States.
Interior Enforcement and E-Verify
Interior Enforcement –Employer Sanctions – E-VerifyReducing illegal immigration to the U.S. to a manageable levelwill only occur when:(1) the U.S. implements a nationwide mandatory automatedemployment eligibility verification system (E-Verify), and(2) deploys a sufficient cadre of interior enforcement officerswho have the authority to levy significant fines and criminalpenalties against non-compliant employers.
U.S. Birth Certificates and other “breederdocuments” Biometrics (fingerprints) must be added to U.S.birth registration. Birth registration and certification should be afederal responsibility. Federal funding should be authorized for reregistration of U.S. births.
E-Verify and U.S. EmploymentDocumentation All documents used for employment authorization musteventually contain a photograph and fingerprints ofapplicant. All biographic information (and some biometricinformation) must be verifiable through the E-Verifyautomated system. Misuse of employment authorization documents tosubvert E-Verify must have significant penalties
Responsible Federal Agencies U.S. Dept of Justice – Prior to 9/11 –***Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security – Post9/11***Customs and Border Protection (Border Patrol &Inspections at ports of entry)Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE)Citizenship and Immigration Services (CIS)***Bureau of Consular Affairs at the U.S. Department ofState also has significant visa issuance responsibilities.
Need for a Cabinet LevelImmigration Agency Directly Affected Agencies– HomelandSecurity, Justice, State & Labor. Indirectly Affected Agencies– Health andHuman Services, Education, Commerce,Transportation & Housing and UrbanDevelopment.
Need for a Bi-Partisan NationalImmigration Policy Board Set visa category limitations Remove immigration process decisions outof the political arena Review and authorize new technology Set refugee and asylum limits Review, authorize and suspendTemporary Protected Status
U.S. ImmigrationIt can be fixed!Neville CramerImmigration and Naturalization Service (retired)