CHAPTER XII INTERNATIONAL BOND MARKETS

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CHAPTER XIIINTERNATIONAL BOND MARKETSDespite the complexity associated with the bond market, a bond is simple and it might be consider abit boring when compared with a stock. After all, a stock represents a piece of a company's wealth.An evaluation of a stock requires an evaluation of the entire company's worth. An ordinary bond isan agreement that merely entitles one party to make and another to receive a series of cash flows.While differences among forms of equity are small, there is a wide range of bonds; innovativefinancial engineers are creating new fixed-income securities almost continuously.In this chapter, we will introduce a wide variety of bond types used in international bond markets.Then, we will describe how bond markets are organized around the world. Finally, we will showhow tools and concepts used in international bond markets.I. Introduction to International Bond MarketsDebt certificates have been traded internationally for several centuries. Kings and emperorsborrowed heavily to finance their wars. In the 14th century, for example, Edward I financed his warsthrough bond issues launched in Italy by the then big banking families. Centuries later, the greatcoalition against Louis XIV led by William of Orange was financed by a group of Dutch familiesoperating from The Hague. Later, the Rothschilds became famous for supporting the British wareffort against Napoleon I through their European family network.Although debt financing has always been international in nature, there is still no unified internationalbond market. The international bond market is divided into three bond market groups:i.Domestic bonds. They are issued locally by a domestic borrower and are usuallydenominated in the local currency.ii.Foreign bonds. They are issued on a local market by a foreign borrower and are usuallydenominated in the local currency. Foreign bond issues and trading are under the supervision of localmarket authorities.iii.Eurobonds. They are underwritten by a multinational syndicate of banks and placed mainlyin countries other than the one in whose currency the bond is denominated. These bonds are nottraded on a specific national bond market.Example XII.1: Distinction between bond markets.(A) Domestic bonds.In February 2015, Apple, the U.S. tech giant, issued bonds for USD 6.5 billion in the U.S. for placement in theU.S. domestic market.The issue was underwritten by a syndicate of investment banks: Bank of America Merrill Lynch, DeutscheBank, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan.The issue is denominated in the currency of the intended investors, i.e., USD.XII.1

(B) Foreign bonds.In August 2015, Apple issued bonds for AUD 2.25 billion for placement in the Aussie market alone. The issuewas underwritten by a syndicate of securities houses, with Goldman Sachs, Commonwealth Bank andDeutsche Bank as the lead managers.(C) Eurobonds.In September 2015, Apple issued bonds for EUR 2.8 billion, in London. The issue was underwritten by aninternational syndicate of securities houses, led by Goldman Sachs and Deutsche Bank.The issue is denominated in EUR to be traded mainly in London, but also in other markets. ¶Foreign bonds issued on national markets have a long history. They often have colorful names:Yankee Bonds (in the U.S.), samurai bonds (in Japan), Rembrandt bonds (in the Netherlands) andbulldog bonds (U.K.). Government regulations have forced many international borrowers to leaveforeign bond markets and borrow instead in the Eurobond market.The Eurobond market has had a fantastic growth during the past 30 years. At its inception, in theearly 1960s, the Eurobond market was mainly a Eurodollar bond market, that is, a market for USDbonds issued outside the U.S. Today, the Eurobond market comprises bonds denominated in all themajor currencies and several minor currencies.Together the foreign bond and Eurobond markets make up the international bond market. As we willsee below, Eurobonds are no different from domestic or foreign bonds. The distinction between thesemarkets is based on technical and historical reasons. For example, as illustrated in Example XII.1, adifference between foreign and Eurobond markets is the composition of the underwriting syndicate.1.AEuromarketsThe Eurobond market is an offshore market where borrowers and lenders meet because of its lowercosts and lack of regulation. The Eurobond market is just one segment of the so-called Euromarket,which also includes Eurocurrency, Euronotes, Eurocommercial paper, and Euroequity markets.Euromarkets are offshore capital markets, in the sense that the currency of denomination is not theofficial currency of the country where the transaction takes place. For example, a Malayan firmdeposits USD not in the U.S. but with a bank outside the U.S., for example in Singapore or inSwitzerland. This USD deposit outside the U.S. is called an Eurodeposit.Today, Euromarkets are well-developed, sophisticated markets where the traded instruments aredenominated in many currencies, not just in the major currencies. For example, in 1996, theEurobond market included issues denominated in the Egyptian pound, Polish zloty and Croatiankuna. At its inception, however, Euromarkets were just Eurodollar markets. For example, the firstEuromarket was the market for short-term USD deposits and USD loans, where European banksacted as intermediaries between investors and borrowers.1.A.1 Origins of EuromarketsXII.2

Long before World War II it was not rare for banks outside the U.S. to accept deposits denominatedin U.S. dollars. The volume of such deposits, however, was small and the market for them had littleeconomic significance. During the 1950s things began to change. Since Russia and other communistcountries had to deal in hard currency for their international trade transactions, the central banks ofthese countries ended up holding USD balances. Initially these balances were held in New York. Butas the cold war tensions increased, the communist government transferred these balances to banks inLondon and other European centers.While the cold war may have initiated the Eurocurrency market, there were other factors thatstimulated its development. Historically, the pound sterling played a key role in world trade. A greatdeal of trade was denominated in GBP. Two events helped to boost the USD as the currency forinternational trade:(1) The sterling crisis in the U.K. in the mid-1950s. In 1957, the U.K. imposed controls on nonresident GBP borrowing and lending by U.K. banks. These institutions then turned to the USD tofinance their international trade.(2) In 1958, West European countries in preparation for the creation of the EEC (now, EU) allowedbanks to trade freely in USD to finance trade.On the hand, the U.S. government, unknowingly, gave a very important stimulus to the growth of theEuromarket with several regulations. During the 1960s the U.S. government imposed severalmeasures to control international capital flows. These measures were aimed to improve the U.S.balance of payments, which was in a big deficit:(1) In 1963, the U.S. government imposed an Interest Equalization Tax (IET) on foreign securitiesheld by U.S. investor. The government's idea was to equalize the after-tax interest rate paid by U.S.and foreign borrowers, and, thus, discourage U.S. residents to buy foreign securities (reducingcapital outflows). The IET forced non-U.S. corporations to pay a higher interest rate in order toattract U.S. investors. Therefore, non-U.S. corporations started to look into the Euromarket toborrow USD.(2) Since the IET did not reduce significantly capital outflows, the U.S. Federal Reserve imposedanother financial regulation in 1965, the Foreign Credit Restraint Program (FCRP). The FCRPrestricted the amount of credit U.S. banks could extend to foreign borrowers. Foreign subsidiaries ofU.S. multinational corporations were considered "foreign", under the FCRP. The government's ideabehind the FCRP was to reduce capital outflows. The FCRP started as a "voluntary" program butwas changed to a mandatory program in 1968. Again, foreign borrowers and U.S. subsidiaries wereforced to go somewhere else to borrow USD.(3) In 1968, the government passed the Foreign Investment Program, which limited the amount ofdomestic USD U.S. corporations could use to finance foreign investments.In addition, for a long time, the Federal Reserve Board regulated the interest rates that U.S. bankscould pay on term deposit. This regulation was called Regulation Q. The tight money years of 1968and 1969 made money market rates to rise above the rates banks where allowed to pay underXII.3

Regulation Q. Regulation Q, widened the interest differential between a USD deposit in the U.S. anda USD deposit abroad.All these restrictions brought the major financial institutions to European money centers likeLondon, Zurich, and Luxembourg. This development had some spillover effects on financial centersin other parts of the world such as Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore, Beirut, Bahamas, and Bahrain.Several European governments also imposed capital controls during this period, which triggered thecreation of the non-USD segments of the Eurocurrency market. For example, during the 1970s, theBundesbank required foreigners with DEM accounts to place a fraction of their funds in noninterestbearing accounts. This regulation gave an incentive to foreigners to make DEM deposits outsideGermany, and, then, the Euro-DEM was born.The regulations and restrictions that gave birth to Euromarkets have all disappeared. Euromarkets,however, have continued to grow. Today, Euromarkets are free from regulations, exempt fromnational taxes and reserve requirements. These conditions allow international banks to takeadvantage of the lower cost of funds. Then, they can lend the funds to international borrowers atlower rates than those that can be obtained in domestic markets.1.A.2 Eurocurrency MarketsThe first Euromarket to emerge was the market for short-term deposits and loans, where banks actedas intermediaries between investors and borrowers. The Eurocurrency market for short-term deposits-Eurodeposits- rapidly became a reference market for domestic market-makers. For example, severaldomestic instruments started to be priced taking the interest rate on Eurodeposits as the relevantdiscount rate.When Eurocurrency markets started to emerge, a typical Eurodeposit involved a time deposit, that is,a non-negotiable, registered instrument with a fixed maturity. When investing in a Eurocurrencytime deposit, the investor commits funds for a certain period of time, at a specified rate. At maturitythe investor receives the principal plus the interest. Later, Eurodeposits included more flexibleinstruments. The most popular instrument is the certificate of deposit (CD), which is negotiable -canbe sold to another investor at any time- and is often a bearer instrument. There are several kinds ofCDs: tap CDs, tranche CDs, and rollover CDs. The tap CD is a standard fixed-time deposit, which isdenominated in amounts of USD 1 million or more. The trance CD is a tap CD that has been dividedinto several portions to make it attractive to small investors. The rollover CD is an instrument bywhich an investor buys a CD on a continuous basis with floating interest rates adjusted by marketconditions when the CD matures and rollovers occur. According to the Bank of England more than90 percent of the Eurodeposits are time deposits.The majority of the Eurodeposits have a very short-term duration, for example, one or seven days, orone, three, or six months. For long-term CDs (up to ten years), there is a fixed coupon or floatingrate coupon. For CDs with floating-rate coupons, like rollovers, the life of the CD is divided intosubperiods of usually six months. The interest earned over such period is fixed at the beginning ofthe period, the reset date. This interest rate is based on the prevailing market interest rate at the time.XII.4

This market rate is usually the LIBOR, the London Interbank Offer Rate or the Interbank Offer Ratein the currency's domestic financial center.Although the majority of Eurodeposits are in the form of time deposits, CDs play a significant role inthe Eurocurrency market because of a liquid secondary market. Banks, regularly, buy and sell theirown CDs in the secondary market to insure investor of the liquidity of the secondary market, andtherefore, making the CDs more attractive. The CD rates shown in newspapers are usually thesecondary market rates. Most CDs issued in London are denominated in USD.In general, the deposits will be effective two business days after the contract is in effect, and mature,for example, 30 days later. On maturity, payment is usually made by a transfer in the currency'shome country (i.e., Japan for Euroyen). The minimum period for delivery of funds is usually twoworking days, which is the usual settlement period in the wholesale foreign exchange market.Example XII.2: A Eurodollar TransactionSuppose IBM has USD 1 million in excess cash available for a week. IBM decides to invest this USD 1million in a 7-day deposit. Bank of New York pays 5.25% for a 7-day domestic deposit. Banco SantanderCentral Hispano (BSCH) has a bid rate of 5.50% for a 7-day Eurodollar time deposit. IBM deposits the USD 1million with Banco de Santander for 7 days.The transaction involves the following steps:i.BSCH must have a USD bank account with a U.S. bank, say, with Citibank.ii.IBM deposits USD 1 million with Citibank for credit to the account of BSCH.iii.BSCH withdraws the funds from its account at Citibank.iv.In 7 days, BSCH transfers USD 1 million plus accrued interest through its account at Citibank to theaccount designated by IBM.Note that if Bank of New York had received the deposit, they should have set aside a part of the deposit asreserve, as specified by the U.S. Federal Reserve. BSCH is free to loan the Eurodeposit to anyone, without anyreserve requirement. The absence of reserve requirements lowers BSCH costs. ¶ Eurobanks: More competitive ratesAs we mentioned above, the unregulated framework allows Eurobanks to be more competitive thandomestic regulated banks. In general, due to competition and the unregulated nature of Eurobanking,we observed that the domestic deposit rate is lower than the London Interbank Bid Rate (LIBID) andthe domestic lending rate is higher than the LIBOR. 1.BEurobonds: Some Descriptive Statistics1.B.1 BorrowersAccording to the BIS, in 1999, the total amount borrowed in the international bond market was USD1,152.7 billion. The major borrowers on the international bond markets were industrial countriesXII.5

(93% of total amount borrowed in 1999). The U.S. (39%), and the Euro area (40%) were by far theheaviest borrowers. The heaviest largest borrowers were financial institutions, with a 51% share. Thecorporate sector issues and the public sector –governments and state agencies—issued 30% and 17%of the international bond debt, respectively. Supranational corporations –the World Bank, EuropeanInvestment Bank, Asian and African Development Banks, the European Community-- had seen theirparticipation substantially decreased in the last 5 years: from 4.22% in 1995 to 2% in 1999.1.B.2 Size and InstrumentsFew investors would consider an investment strategy that systematically excludes the fixed-incomemarket from his or her portfolio. Yet, U.S. investors routinely ignore non-USD bonds, which accountfor almost 55 % of the world bond market.Table XII.A presents the major bond issues, by currency of denomination and sector.TABLE XII.AINTERNATIONAL BOND MARKETS(Nominal Value of New Offerings (Net), Billions of USD, 2015)Bond MarketStraightFloatingEquity- RelatedTotalUSD391.367.210.2468.7EUR 270.4CHF6.81.1-4.0Total784.4208.631.11010.0Source: BISAccording to the BIS, governments and state agencies mainly borrow in the straight (fixed) ratemarket (92%). Corporations also tend to borrow in the straight rate market (74%). On the other hand,financial institutions have a more balanced borrowing portfolio: 54% in the straight rate segment,and 44% in the floating rate segment.1.CType of Bond InstrumentsThe variety of bonds offered to the international or even domestic investor is amazing due to therecent development of bonds with variable interest rates and complex optional clauses. (For a reviewof the basic concepts and techniques behind bonds, see Appendix XII.) Most issues on theinternational bond market, however, are fixed interest bonds, see Table XII.A. The most popularinstruments in international bond markets are:XII.6

Straight or fixed income bonds: a fixed income bond is a financial instrument with specific interestpayments on specified dates over a period of years. On the last specified date, or maturity, thepayment includes a repayment of principal. The interest rate or coupon is expressed as a percentageof the issue amount and is fixed at launch. For the issuer, the attraction of these bonds is theknowledge of level payments on interest and a set repayment schedule. For investors, the attractionof straight bonds lies in a known income.Example XII.3: Straight bond.In January 2004, Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD) issued straight coupon Eurobonds, with thefollowing terms:Amount:Maturity:Issue price:Coupon:YTM:USD 500 million.January 2034 (30 years).100%8.25% payable annually8.35% (Brazil’s government bonds traded at YTM 9.02% at the time)Note: CVRD, which is the world's largest iron ore miner, was initially planning to sell USD 300 million worthof the bonds, but ended up placing USD 500 million thanks to strong demand that surpassed USD1 billion. ¶ Partly-paid bonds: these are standard straight bonds in all respects but for the payment of principalby investors on the closing date of the issue -which is limited to 0-33 percent of the principalamount, with the balance falling due up to six months later. These bonds are popular with issuerswho can tailor the second payment to their cash flow requirements.Example XII.6: Partly-paid bonds.In April 1998, the European Investment Bank (EIB) issued a partly-paid GBP bond in which investors onlyhand over 25% of the principal. The remaining 75% will be paid in 12 months. The GBP bond raised GBP300 million and was aimed at overseas investors attracted by the relatively high yield on offer in the UK butconcerned about the unusually strong GBP. ¶ Zero-coupon bonds: a zero-coupon bond is a straight bond with no schedule of periodic interestpayments. The cash flow consists of two payments, the receipt of the proceeds on issue date and therepayment of principal on maturity. For the issuer, zero coupon bonds are an ideal financinginstrument for a project, which generates no income for some years. On the other hand, the loadingof the debt service of the bond into a single payment some years later creates a higher credit risk. Forthis reason the market is confined to highly rated borrowers. Investors are attracted to zero-couponbonds to meet future liabilities.Example XII.4: Zero-coupon bonds ("zeros").In June 1981, PepsiCo Overseas issued zero-coupon Eurobonds, with the following terms:Amount:Maturity:Issue price:USD 100 million.June 1984 (3 years).USD 67.255.XII.7

Redemption price:100%Since the bonds would be repaid in three years at 100 percent of face value, the compounded annual interestyield was(100/67.25)1/3 - 1 14.14%.By contrast, in 1985, Deutsche Bank Finance N.V. issued a zero-coupon bond with the following terms:Amount:Maturity:Issue price:Redemption price:USD 200 million10 years.USD 100.287%The interest yield on this issue by Deutsche Bank Finance was: (287/100)1/10 - 1 11.12%. ¶ Floating rate notes (FRNs): FRNs are a medium-term instrument similar in structure to straightbonds but for the interest base and interest rate calculations. The coupon rate is reset at specifiedregular intervals, normally 3 months, 6 months, or one year. The coupon comprises a money marketrate (e.g., the London Interbank Offered Rate for 6-month deposits, or LIBOR) plus a margin, whichreflects the creditworthiness of the issuer. FRNs usually carry a prepayment option for the issuer.Issuers like FRNs because they combine the lower pricing of a bank loan and larger maturities thanthe straight bond market. Investors are attracted to FRNs because the periodic resetting of the couponoffers the strongest protection of capital.Example XII.5: FRNs ("floaters").In January 2004, The United Mexican States (UMS) issued a USD Eurobond, with the following terms:Amount:Maturity:Issue price:Coupon:USD 1,000 million.January 2009 (5 years).99.9656-mo LIBOR 70 bp payable quarterly.At the time the notes were offered, 6-mo LIBOR was 3.64 percent. So for the first three months ChristianiaBank paid an interest at an annual rate of3.64% .70% 4.64%.Afterward, at the end of each six-month period the interest rates on the bonds are updated to reflect the current6-mo LIBOR rate for dollars. ¶ Perpetual FRNs: They are FRNs but have no maturity date. Issuers have a call option to prepayinvestors. Perpetual FRNs usually have investors put options or options to exchange the undatedbonds for bonds with finite maturity. Perpetual FRNs have subordinated status and in some casesjunior subordinated status, so they can rank close to equity. As a quasi-equity instrument, theyqualify as capital, and for the purposes of capital adequacy, are treated as equity. Convertible bonds: A convertible bond is a bond that can usually be exchanged or converted at theXII.8

option of the holder into other assets at a fixed conversion rate set at time of launch. Convertiblebonds are usually launched in conditions of poor fixed-rate bond markets, high interest rates and anexpectation of falling rates. Issuers benefit from (1) the lower funding costs relative to short-termmoney markets and (2) the possibility of no repaying the principal if the conversion right isexercised. Investors benefit because they receive the benefit of regular coupon payments plus theoption of locking in to a better yield later.Example XII.7: Convertible bonds ("convertibles").In March 2000, the Swiss company Roche Holdings issued convertible bonds (“Sumo bond”) with thefollowing terms:Amount:Maturity:Coupon:Issue Price:Conversion structure:Conversion period:JPY 104,600,000,000.March 2005 (5 years).0.25% payable annually.96.4%Each bond of JPY 1,410,000 par value is exchangeable for one non-votingequity security of Roche Holding Ltd at an exchange ratio of 1.03292.At any time after the first interest payment.That is, if the conversion right is exercised each USD 10,000 bond would buy 597.13 ADRs. ¶Example XII.8: Convertible bonds into other bond.In May 1983, CEPME issued Eurobonds with the following ion structure:Conversion exchange rate:Conversion period:GBP 35 million.May 1995 (12 years).GBP 1,00011.25% payable annually.Each bond is convertible at the bondholder's option into a USD 12-yearFRN paying semiannual dollar interest equal to six-month LIBOR.1.55 USD/GBPAt any time after the first interest payment.That is, if the conversion right is exercised each bond would buy a USD 1550 12-year FRN. ¶ Bonds with warrants: Bonds with warrants resemble convertibles except that the warrant can betraded separately. The proceeds from the warrants are applied to the reduction of the cost of the hostbond. Bonds can have equity warrants, bond warrants, or commodity warrants attached. Bonds withequity warrants differ from convertible bonds in one other aspect: when the warrants are exercisednew money is normally used to subscribe for the shares, and the total capitalization of the borrowerincreases. This is unlike the conversion of a convertible bond, which merely shifts debt capital intoequity capital. The equity warrant is effectively a call option on the underlying stock. Therefore,pricing a warrant relies on (1) variations of the Black-Scholes formula, and (2) a market view basedon supply and demand.Example XII.9: Bonds with equity warrants.XII.9

In May 1990, Cannon issued Euro-USD bonds with equity warrants attached. The terms of the issue are ber of warrants:Warrants per bond:Shares per warrant:Exercise price:Conversion exchange rate:Exercise period:USD 370 million.May 31, 1995 (5 years).USD 5,0004%74,0001468.06JPY 1487139.2 JPY/USDAt any time after the first interest payment, ending one week before thematurity of the bond.Almost all Japanese Euro-USD bonds with equity warrant attached (USD Eurowarrants) have similar terms tothe Cannon's issue. ¶Eurowarrants dominated Japanese new issue financing during the Japanese bull market of the late1980s. Japanese warrants, as they were called, were issued in USD, DEM, CHF, FRF, NLG, GBP,ECU, and JPY. Almost all Japanese warrants have been issued outside Japan, and as such areprincipally traded OTC in various European centers. Dual-currency bonds: Dual-currency bonds are bonds that are purchased in terms of one currencybut pay coupons or repay principal at maturity in terms of a second currency. Japanese firms havefrequently issued CHF-denominated bonds convertible into common shares of a Japanese company.A foreign investor can benefit from purchasing this bond in any one of three situations:(1) A drop in the market interest rate on CHF bonds (as on any straight CHF bond).(2) A rise in the price of the company's stock (because the bonds are convertible into stocks).(3) A rise in the JPY relative to the CHF (because the bond is convertible into a JPY asset).Dual currency bonds represent a combination of an ordinary bond combined with one or moreforward contracts.Example XII.10: Dual-currency bonds.In July 1985, Swiss Bank Soditic led the issue of a dual currency bond for First City Financial. Each bondcould be purchased for its full face value of CHF 5000. Interest on these bonds is paid on CHF. At maturity, atthe end of ten years, the bond principal will be repaid in the amount of USD 2,800.At the time of the issue, this bond could be view as the combination of (a) an ordinary ten-year CHF bond thatwould repay principal in the amount of CHF 5000, plus (b) a ten-year forward contract to buy USD 2800 at1.7857 CHF/USD ( CHF 5000/USD 2800). ¶Exhibit XII.1 presents the advertisement of a bond issued in 1986 by NKK. This bond is a dualcurrency bond.XII.10

Exhibit XII.1Eurobond TombstoneThese securities have been sold outside the United States of America and Japan. This announcement appears as a matter of recordonly.NEW ISSUE17th April, 2010NTKNakatomi Tsushin Koygo1 per cent. Dual CurrencyYen/British Pound Bonds Due 2020Issue Price: 100 per cent. of the Issue AmountIssue Amount:Redemption Amount at Maturity:Nomura International LimitedCFS InternationalJPY 30,000,000,000GBP 120,000,000Mitsubishi Trust & Banking CorporationYamaichi International (Europe) LimitedBankers Trust International LimitedCrédit LyonnaisCredit Suisse First Boston LimitedDresdner Bank AktiengesellschaftEBC Amro Bank LimitedFuji International Finance LimitedHousemann Bank InternationalBanca Nazionale del LaboroLloyds Mercant Bank LimitedMorgan Guaranty LtdMorgan Stanley InternationalBertoni Bank LimitedBanco Santander Central HispanoUnion Bank of Switzerland (Securities)S.G. Warburg & Co. Ltd.XII.11

There are several points worth noticing:i.The underwriting syndicate is made up of banks from numerous countries (Japan, the U.S.,Germany, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland).ii.U.S. commercial banks (Morgan Guaranty, Bertoni Bank) participate, as well as U.S.investment banks (Morgan Stanley, CFS). Note, however, that the British subsidiaries of the U.S.banks are involved and not U.S. head companies (note the word limited after the name of the bank).iii.This is dual-currency bond: it is issued in JPY (30 billion) with interest coupons fixed in yen(8%), but its principal repayment is fixed in GBP (120 million). Applied Corner: Currency crises close marketsThe 1997 Asian currency crisis had as one of the main casualties, the Asian convertible bond market.For example, in the November 1997 issue of Euromoney a trader says: "we are even marking downthe convertible Eurobond for Kepco, the South Korean electricity utility, as a sell which I neverimagined we would have to do." Asian's equity prices have fallen so far that, according to a SalomonBrothers trader, most existing convertibles are trading as straight bonds because the equityconversion element has become effectively valueless."The hardest hit convertibles have been those that have had redemption to a fixed amount of localcurrency," said a vice-president of Merrill Lynch in Euromoney.So great was the effect of the crisis that the new issue sector in Asia virtually grounded to halt. Atleast USD 2 billion worth of convertibles for Korean companies were delayed until early 1998.Source: Euromoney, November 1997. II. Eurobond Markets2.AHistorical development of the Eurobond MarketThe growth of the Eurobond market was extraordinary. Shortly after the introduction of the InterestEqualization Tax, in June 1963, the first offshore bond issue denominated in U.S. dollars waslaunched. In the same year a total of USD 145 million in new Eurobond issues was raised, and by1968 the volume had risen to USD 3 billion.On the strength of its early success, the Eurobond market quickly established itself:i.It had a marketplace in London.ii.The U.K. authorities allowed the market to develop without regulations or restrictions.London became, and remains today, the principal center for new issues and the trading of USDdenominated Eurobonds.iii.The speed and simplicity of issuing in the Eurobond market compared favorably with theprincipal foreign bond market, the U.S. Yankee market.iv.The establishment in 1969 of the Association of International Bond Dealers (AIBD) provideda forum for improving