Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide Based .

3m ago
18 Views
0 Downloads
2.10 MB
24 Pages
Transcription

The Thompson TDA ModelText Dependent Analysis –Instructional Prompt GuideGrade 7 Annotated Student ResponsesBased on the Text Dependent AnalysisLearning ProgressionsThe Text Dependent Analysis (TDA) grade-span Learning Progressions (LPs) aredesigned to be used as an instructional tool. The TDA LPs are structured in gradespans (3-5 and 6-8) with four levels, Beginning, Emerging, Developing, andMeeting. The levels describe the typical path we see in student responses as thestudent moves toward demonstrating more sophisticated understanding ofanalysis. The LPs include descriptions of student work which characterize eachlevel from a beginning TDA writer to one who is meeting the expectations of textdependent analysis essay writing. The TDA LPs can be used by teachers toidentify student strengths and needs based on what a student can do at a specificpoint in time. This informs the teacher’s instructional decision-making about movingstudent comprehension, analysis and writing to the next level.How to Use this GuideThe Text Dependent Analysis Instructional Prompt Guide contains the followingsections: text complexity, instructional text-dependent analysis prompt, exampleproficient student response as written by the teacher, grade-level text, annotatedstudent work, and possible instructional next steps. Text complexity includes the quantitative and qualitative measures of the text andthe identified reading elements/structure for analysis. This information guides theteacher when choosing appropriate texts for instruction. The instructional prompt uses the reading elements as identified in the previoussection.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 20191

The Thompson TDA Model The example proficient student response, as written by the teacher, reflects the teacher’s expectationfor a seventh grade student’s proficient response to the instructional prompt. This critical step allowsthe teacher to uncover if the text offers enough evidence and complexity for students to use whenresponding to the prompt, the appropriateness of the prompt in relation to the text, and to verify theuse of the identified reading elements (grade-level curriculum). The annotated student responses use the learning progression levels (beginning, emerging,developing, and meeting) to identify the student’s strengths and areas of need regarding theunderlying components of text dependent analysis (reading comprehension, analysis, and essaywriting). The last section following each response provides the teacher with possible instructional next steps tomeet the student’s areas of need.Text ComplexityTextComplexity(Lexile and Qualitative analysis)Reading Elements/Structure for analysisUncle Timothy’s Ships by Summer WoodfordLexile level: 660 (Grade 7; 955-1155)Qualitative level: Moderately complexNote: Although the Lexile score is below grade 7,the meaning/purpose of the text adds to thecomplexity as there are multiple levels of meaningthat are difficult to identify, are subtle and implicit.Additionally, the language features containabstract and figurative language which maypresent difficulty for students.Author’s Craft and Theme1Instructional Text Dependent Analysis PromptAuthors use various techniques, such as figurative language, to convey a message in their writings.Analyze the techniques the author uses to convey a theme in Uncle Timothy’s Ships. Be sure to useevidence from the text to support your response.Example Proficient Student Response as Written by the TeacherThe story describes a young boy who has always admired his uncle and the way he skipped rockson the sea. His uncle took him to his house one day and talked with him about the ships he kept andhow they wanted to be free. One day the uncle was on a boat, sailing further into the sea. His unclewas going to be free and leave everything behind for his freedom. The author used techniques likeimagery, plot events, and dialogue to reveal the theme of the passage which is to do what you think isbest for yourself.Dialogue is one of the techniques Summer Woodford used in her story to provide insight into thecharacter of Uncle Timothy. “‘They are . . .’ Uncle Timothy paused and then said, ‘What I am. They aretrapped. They haven’t tasted freedom.’” The uncle and his nephew were standing inside their house,staring at the old ships in bottles that he kept. Uncle Timothy’s dialogue with Timothy alsoThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 20192

The Thompson TDA Modelforeshadows what is to come creating tension for the reader. These words about the ships conveyhow Uncle Timothy is feeling revealing that he, too, wants to be free and will need to do what hethinks is best for him. Often times when we personify objects, as Uncle Timothy does with the ships,we are really speaking about ourselves.Specific events in the passage are also used to convey the theme. Early in the passage thenarrator states that “He never bothered to say goodbye. I never mentioned my curiosity at this habit ofhis; I never felt I had to, I just knew that he didn’t feel he should waste his breath on solemn‘goodbyes’ when he was to see me the next day.” However, further in the passage Uncle Timothy saysgood-bye to his nephew. As soon as he said goodbye to him his nephew knew already that his unclewas going to leave. This change of behavior in the final event demonstrates that Uncle Timothy hasdecided to be free and leave, revealing the theme that he needed to do what was best for him despiteany other obligations.The last technique used by Summer Woodford is imagery. There are a lot of examples of imageryin the story including, “And there came a boat gliding across the waves so easily, heading straight outto sea.” and “I watched Uncle Timothy as his eyes rested on the glistening boats tied to the docks.”These examples allow the reader to intensify the impact of how the boat looked on the water andwhile tied to the docks. The use of imagery allows the reader to understand how much Uncle Timothywanted to be on his boat and sailing away even if it meant everything behind including his nephew,house, friends, and family. The imagery associated with the words “gliding” and “glistening” issomething smooth, beautiful and appealing, and illustrates the theme that Uncle Timothy sees theboats as the need for freedom and to seek this freedom as something that he has to do for himself.The techniques of imagery, plot events, and dialogue, used by Summer Woodford, all contribute tothe theme of do what you think is best for you. Uncle Timothy had always wanted to be free, and oneday he truly was free. He had sailed away and left everything behind to pursue his freedom like theships he admired. He left his family and friends behind because he did what he thought would be bestfor him.Text: Uncle Timothy’s Ships by Summer WoodfordI loved the way my Uncle Timothy could make rocks dance across the water. He would make themdo a different dance every time. He didn’t know that I admired him. And I didn’t want him to, for fearsomething would change. Maybe he wouldn’t want me to watch him make the rocks dance if he knewthat I admired him.Uncle Timothy’s swift and strong wrist reached for another rock and then paused in midair. Iwatched him.“Look out there.” His wrist chose another direction to turn. “Tell me what you see.”I followed his long arm as it stretched out into the ocean mist. “I see the ocean and the boats andthe gulls.”This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 20193

The Thompson TDA Model“What do you like most about the sea?” Uncle Timothy’s lip quivered beneath his satiny mustache.He asked me this every day. But I never grew tired of the question.“The color of the water,” I responded, letting my fingers sift through the trampled sand of many ages.Uncle Timothy looked at me and a crooked smile spread across his face. He lay his weatheredhand atop my head for many moments before withdrawing it and then leaving. He never bothered tosay goodbye. I never mentioned my curiosity at this habit of his; I never felt I had to, I just knew thathe didn’t feel he should waste his breath on solemn ‘goodbyes’ when he was to see me the next day. Icouldn’t help but admire him the more for this.I felt that a house with character didn’t need to have anything added to make it that way. A housewith character just had it. And that was that. I thought all this as I stood on our porch, looking out overthe rocks where Uncle Timothy and I had often sat. It was our place.Mama poked her head out of the window above, her hair tied up in the torn red bandanna thathadn’t been torn when I gave it to her. I couldn’t remember my giving it to her, but whenever she woreit she had to remind me that I did.“Where were you?” Mama called down to me. I didn’t answer because she already knew andwouldn’t listen anyway. “See this bandanna?” She pointed to it and smiled. “Remember when yougave it to me?”I looked away and shoved my hands into the worn security of my pockets, lined with bits of sand.One day Uncle Timothy wore a crushed brown felt fedora with a wispy, rather bedraggled feather. Iknew he was down there when I saw his feather, bobbing up and down among the rocks. Then I felt Ishould join him.Mama stood, leaning perilously over the hot sink, her hands holding a dish that had been chippedmany different times.“He’s down there,” was all she needed to say.“I’m going down,” I said, my eyes fastened on the worn enamel cover of the sink.Mama’s jaw stiffened and the edges around her lips began to turn white. She was going to saysomething.“Those boats are restless.” I watched Uncle Timothy as his eyes rested on the glistening boatstied to the docks.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 20194

The Thompson TDA Model“Boats can’t be restless,” I countered. “It’s just the waves making them rock today.”Uncle Timothy grasped a smooth and faultless stone in his hand and threw it forcefully into thewater, “They’re restless,”I was silent.“Look at them—all tied up,” he went on, his burly voice skimming the waves. “They want to befree. Free on the water. Free as the wind. Forever.”I studied the dirt smudge on my shoe intently before replying, “I don’t understand.”Uncle Timothy looked at me then but didn’t smile. He put his hand on my shoulder and let it rest there.“Come back with me. I’ve been wanting to show you something.”Uncle Timothy’s house had character. A plain log cabin set atop a crumbling hill over the sea. Thatwas all. It had character. His door squeaked rustily and without apology, revealing the essence of theman I so much admired. Just a couch at the window, its tasseled pillows tossed to one side. A rocker,forlornly rocking in the sympathetic wind. And the glass-bottle ships sitting proudly on the mantle—theonly objects in the house that were free of dust.“I love them,” he said quietly. He walked toward them, then stood there, his eyes gleaming in thevivid darkness—I could see that plainly. I drew closer, close enough to see the intricate layout of theships inside the bottles. They were so old! I could tell by the yellow, gnawing at their framework. Yetso timeless. Trapped and still, forever in a bottle.“They are . . . “ Uncle Timothy paused and then said, “what I am. They are trapped. They haven’ttasted freedom.”I glanced out the neatly cracked window at the tied-up boats rocking plaintively on the waves.“They are restless,” I responded absently, not realizing the puzzle I had then completed with mywords.“Someday,” Uncle Timothy shook his head, “someday I will let my ships taste freedom.”I knew what he meant.Mornings by the sea were always covered by a delicate veil of mist. I sat on the rocks waiting forthe steady rise and fall of Uncle Timothy’s heavy boots against the pebbles and sand.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 20195

The Thompson TDA ModelHe finally came and sat down. His usually clear eyes were clouded with distraction. I wasn’t quitesure what to say, so I said nothing.“What do you like best about the sea today?” He said it with such an air of finality that I shivered.“I like everything about it today,” I smiled.Uncle Timothy replied, “I do too.”His answer reassured my shiver.And then, quite abruptly, he stood. I’d always marveled at his towering presence. Today he didn’tseem quite so big.He began to leave and I looked away, remembering our ritual. But then he turned.“Goodbye, boy,” he said briskly.The urge to jump up and bring him back to me for so many explanations was strong—but I didn’twant him to know that I admired him.A morning had never felt so empty. Standing by the side of the house, leaning against the coldwall, I looked out over the sea. Waves so meek on such a fierce day! I wondered why. But UncleTimothy had never shown up, so I couldn’t ask.And now I was waiting for him. Not by the place where we sat each day, but here, at a safe distance.And there came a boat gliding across the waves so easily, heading straight out to sea. He stood tall,face to the horizon, rocking up and down with his boat. I could see his determination in the way he heldhimself. And I knew he couldn’t be so sure about leaving his home, his yellow tasseled pillows and rockingchair, his neatly cracked window and crumbling hill, and me—his friend—if it weren’t for the glass-bottleships bobbing joyously in his wake. I could see them there, a whole flotilla of miniature dreams, old butnew, alive for the very first time. He had finally set them free. But I knew what it really meant.Before they could leave my sight, I whispered, “Goodbye, Uncle Timothy—I hope freedom suitsyou well.”And he would know what I meant. He always had. 1999 Merlyn’s Pen Inc.Reprinted under Fair UseSection 107 of the Copyright ActThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 20196

The Thompson TDA ModelStudent responses are analyzed and annotated for possible instructional next stepsbased on the Text Dependent Analysis Learning Progressions.Example AStudent ResponseTDA LearningProgression AnnotationsReading Comprehension:DevelopingAn understanding of the promptis demonstrated throughout theresponse by identifying specifictechniques used by the author toconvey the theme of thepassage.A brief summary is provided inthe introduction. Key details asevidence about the techniquesare included in the thesisstatement and identified in theresponse. The evidence providedis not fully connected to theinferences to demonstrate adetailed understanding of thetext.Analysis: EmergingThe quotes included as textevidence are generally relevantfor the identified technique.However, the student does notexplain how the quotedemonstrates the technique. Forexample, the student identifiesthat imagery is used andprovides the evidence, I watchedUncle Timothy as his eyes restedon the glistening boats tied to thedocks. Although the studentexplains what the statementmeans, it is unclear how theevidence demonstratesThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 20197

The Thompson TDA Modelimagery. Additionally, in the firstbody paragraph, the studentidentifies that figurative languageis used, but it is unclear whattype of figurative language isbeing referred to.The student makes inferencesabout the quotes provided;however, they are repetitive andgeneral. The student writes, Thissupports the theme also becauseit is not only talking about theboats want to be free but him aswell; and in the next paragraphwrites Also because Timothy isnot just talking about the boatsbut himself as well. Theinferences should be specific tothe evidence provided from thatsection of the passage andexplained in relation to themeaning of the text and thetheme.The student repeatedly statesthat the technique conveys thetheme; however, the explanationand elaboration is lacking.Essay Writing: DevelopingThe organization is coherent andcontains multiple paragraphswhich focus on the specifictechniques and evidence andhow they are connected to thetheme.Basic and repetitive transitionsare used from paragraph toparagraph (The author uses) andThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 20198

The Thompson TDA Modelrepetitive sentence beginningsare used within the paragraphs(One way This also shows This also conveys That is how ).The grammar and spelling areappropriate.Possible Instructional Next Steps:The focus for instruction should help students move along the Learning Progression continuum. Thisstudent demonstrates that s/he is developing the underlying expectation for reading comprehensionand essay writing, and emerging for analysis. The instructional focus for this student should be tostrengthen the ability to analyze text, and more specifically, to provide clear inferences related to theselected evidence and to fully connect the evidence and inferences about the reading elementsthrough a clear explanation and elaboration2. Additionally, the student demonstrates a basic writingstructure and style for grade seven and would benefit from additional instruction. The followingsuggestions will help the student move along the continuum.1. Making inferences about the evidence and ensuring an understanding of how thetechnique conveys the theme requires teaching the student to look for relationships betweenthe techniques and theme. Although the student has provided evidence which is relevant indemonstrating techniques that help reveal the theme, the inferences made are repetitive andgeneral (This supports the theme also because it is not only talking about the boats want to befree but him as well; Also because Timothy is not just talking about the boats but himself aswell.). Provide students with a thinking organizer in order to select specific evidence, explainthe technique, make an inference about the evidence, and explain its meaning relative to theother reading element. The teacher then models for students how to take the organizerinformation to construct a clear explanation of what the text means relative to the readingelements.Explicit EvidenceI watched UncleTimothy as his eyesrested on theglistening boats tiedto the docks.Explain the Inference by Drawing aConclusionIdentify and ExplainInference(How does thisthe Techniquetechnique connectto the author’smessage?)Glistening is theThe sparkling andUncle Timothy seesimagery - describes shining look of thethe boats as his waysomething so that itboat appeals toto finding freedom asappeals to our sense Uncle Timothysomething that heof smell, sight, taste, causing him to desire has to do for himself.touch, or hearingto be on the boat.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 20199

The Thompson TDA Model2. Instructing students how to make a generalization helps them to extend a conclusion aboutthe text and the reading elements. Generalizations help students to elaborate on what theauthor is trying to say to all people or to determine a universal statement about the world.Generalizations are statements that are based on specific instances in the text but applybroadly (to most everyone in the world). Generalizations should not be stereotypes or clichés,such as, Don’t quit. Teaching generalizations about texts begins with drawing a conclusion anddetermining what does this mean more broadly. Including a generalization deepens theanalysis. For example:ConclusionUncle Timothy sees the boats as his way to finding freedom as something that he has todo for himself.SO WHAT? (elaboration and generalization)Often when we see an appealing object it represents something that we desire and thinkthat we cannot live without.3. Instructing for explanation and elaboration requires moving students beyond the “this showsthat” or restatements of That is how the author used imagery to convey the theme. Often studentsprovide a statement that helps connect the evidence and the reading elements being analyzed butlack one or two additional statements that explain the meaning of what they stated. Teach studentsthe meaning of elaboration and how it answers questions for the reader. Providing students with alist of questions that focus on elaboration will help them deepen their analysis. Examples couldinclude the following, but should be established based on the expectations of the prompt: Why do you think the author included that information? Why do you think that is so? What are some typical characteristics and behaviors you would expect of ? What would you expect to happen if ?4. Teaching varied sentence structures and sophisticated transitions will create an essaythat has greater fluency and engage the reader. There are several strategies that can betaught and practiced such as adding appositives, adjectives, verbs, prepositions, andtransitions within a paragraph. “Teachers should model how to use sentence construction skillsduring drafting and revising. During the revision process, students should be encouraged torevise their original sentences for clarity and meaning. Revising helps students apply theirskills in authentic settings, as opposed to editing language on a generic worksheet. Asstudents revise their drafts, they can use their newly learned sentence construction skills toimprove their compositions. Older students can also review or edit one another’s work”(Teaching Elementary School Students to Be Effective Writers, 2012, p. 32).This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 201910

The Thompson TDA ModelExample BStudent ResponseTDA LearningProgression AnnotationsReading Comprehension:MeetingAn understanding of the promptis demonstrated throughout theresponse by identifying thetechnique and explaining itsmeaning relative to the evidenceand passage.Relevant key details as evidenceabout the technique are includedthroughout the essay. The keydetails support the inferencesmade about the theme anddemonstrate an understanding ofthe text. Although the student didnot specifically state that theuncle found his freedom at theend of the story, the studentreferences the uncle’s desire forfreedom when stating UncleTimothy was using the ships andtalking about himself.Analysis: DevelopingThe direct quotes as textevidence are included andsupport the inferences about thecharacter which alludes to thetheme. (Evidence Someday Iwill let my ships taste freedom. Iknew what he meant.Inference Uncle Timothy wasusing the ships and talking abouthimself because the shipsoutside are not free becausethey are tied up by the ropes andthe ships inside are trapped inbottles. Reference to thetheme Timothy feels thatThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 201911

The Thompson TDA Modelbecause he is old, he is trappedand can’t have his freedom, butone day he will get it.). Thestudent is inconsistent inconnecting the inference to thetheme.An explanation and elaborationto connect the evidence andinferences of the readingelements, techniques and theme,are lacking or are superficial asin the example above and also inthe final body paragraph.Essay Writing: MeetingThe organization is coherent andcontains multiple paragraphswhich focus on the technique.Basic and repetitive transitionsare used from paragraph toparagraph (One technique Another technique, The lasttechnique) and repetitivesentence beginnings are usedwithin the paragraphs (Thismeans This lets me know This helps conveys .The grammar and spelling areappropriate.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 201912

The Thompson TDA ModelPossible Instructional Next Steps:The focus for instruction should help students move along the Learning Progression continuum. Thisstudent demonstrates that s/he is meeting in the underlying expectations of reading comprehensionand essay writing. Therefore, the instructional focus for this student should be moving the studentfrom developing to meeting in the ability to analyze text2. The following suggestions will help thestudent move along the continuum.1. Instructing for explanation and elaboration requires moving students beyond an inference.Often students provide a statement that helps connect the evidence and the reading elements.They may lack one or two additional statements that explain the meaning of their evidence.The use of a graphic organizer will help students draw a conclusion that leads to ageneralization. For example:Explicit EvidenceHe never bothered to saygoodbye.“But then he turned.Goodbye, boy, he saidbriskly.”Explain the Inference byDrawing a ConclusionHow does the inferenceconnect to the theme?Saying goodbye at the endGiven the uncle’s desire tobe free like the boats, sayingforeshadows that thenephew will never see Uncle goodbye conveys the ideathat he has made theTimothy again.decision to leave and followhis dreams.Inference about theTechnique and SelectedEvidence2. Instructing students on making a generalization helps students in extending a conclusionabout the text and the reading elements that are being analyzed to elaborate on what theauthor is trying to say to all people or something true about the world or how individualsgenerally behave. Generalizations are statements that are based on specific instances in thetext, but apply broadly (to most everyone in the world). Making a generalization, however,should not be a stereotype or a cliché. Teaching generalizations about texts begins withdrawing a conclusion and determining what does this mean more broadly. Including ageneralization deepens the analysis. For example, using the SO WHAT conclusion above:This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 201913

The Thompson TDA ModelConclusionGiven the uncle’s desire to be free like the boats, saying goodbye conveys the idea that hehas made the decision to leave and follow his dreams.SO WHAT? (elaboration and generalization)In this case, Uncle Timothy has changed his routine of never saying goodbye to signal thathis life is changing. Often when we change our routines we are sending a message thatsomething in our life is changing.3. Instructing students on the use of skillful transitions, both at the beginning and withinthe paragraph, will create writing that is smooth and fluent. This writing instruction can beginwith generating a list of transitions, clarifying their use (transition words to help move thereader from one thought to another, from one idea to another), and explaining the purpose ofdifferent types of transitions. Examples of transition words can include:Examples of Possible Transition Words/Phrases (not grade level specific)AddinginformationGiving moreinformation and not only but also moreover furthermore in additionGivingexamples/clarifyingStating anexample for example for instance specifically in particular the firstexample is the secondexample isShowing acontrastHowsomething isdifferent but however on the otherhand otherwise instead in contrast althoughShowing acomparison/similarityHowsomething isthe same likewise similarly in the sameway just as as too again thusShowing atimesequenceTimeorder thatsomethingoccurs first second finally in conclusion in summary meanwhile to sum upShowing acause/effectResults ofsome action so as a result therefore thus as aconsequence 71/Centricity/Domain/106/7th%20transitions.pdfThe teacher can provide students with a paragraph that has underlined basic transitions.Students work together to replace these transitions with more sophisticated words. Studentsshare their selections and explain why the new sophisticated transitions improve the flow of theparagraph.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.Text Dependent Analysis – Instructional Prompt Guide (Grade 7) March 201914

The Thompson TDA ModelExample CStudent ResponseTDA LearningProgression AnnotationsReading Comprehension:EmergingThe student provides a briefsummary in the introduction. Thedifferent types of techniques(personification and hyperbole)are acknowledged as a means ofdemonstrating the theme.This response moves beyond asummary; however, the detailsand inferences includemisconceptions about theevidence and demonstration of atheme.Additionally, the student identifiesthe theme as of being free.Although this alludes to apossible theme, it is notaccurate.Analysis: EmergingThe evidence included generallyillustrates the technique andcould be relevant indemonstrating the theme (Theauthor uses personification toconvey the message when theboy thinks how Uncle Timothymakes the rocks dance.).However, the student makesunclear, weak, or inaccurateinferences about the evidence (Itconveys by showing that UncleTimothy has lots of free t